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Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Piston Influence and Flow Pulsation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0003
Engine valve flow coefficients are used to describe the flow throughput performance of engine valve/port designs, and to model gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Valve flow coefficients are normally determined at a stationary flow test bench, separately for intake and exhaust side, in the absence of the piston. However, engine operation differs from this setup; i. a. the piston might interact with valve flow around scavenging top dead center, and instead of steady boundary conditions, valve flow is nearly always subjected to pressure pulsations, due to pressure wave reflections within the gas exchange ports. In this work the influences of piston position and flow pulsation on valve flow coefficients are investigated for different SI engine geometries by means of 3D CFD and measurements at an enhanced flow test bench.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0449
In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated. To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0039
Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Pressure Ratios, Pressure and Temperature Levels

2019-01-15
2019-01-0041
Engine valve flow coefficients are not only used to characterize the performance of valve/port designs, but also for modelling gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Flow coefficients are usually estimated with small pressure ratios and at ambient air conditions. In contrast, the ranges for pressure ratio, pressure and temperature level during engine operation are much more extensive. In this work the influences of these three parameters on SI engine poppet valve flow coefficients are investigated using 3D CFD and measurements for validation. While former investigations already showed some pressure ratio dependencies by measurement, here the use of 3D CFD allows a more comprehensive analysis and a deeper understanding of the relevant effects. At first, typical ranges for the three mentioned parameters during engine operation are presented.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study of Optimal Integration of a Rankine Cycle Based Waste Heat Recovery System into the Cooling System of a Long-Haul Heavy Duty Truck

2018-09-10
2018-01-1779
As a promising solution to improve fuel efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas from internal combustion engine has continuously drawn attention from automobile industry in recent years. The most attractive concept of ORC-based WHR system is the conversion of the thermal energy of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust gas from Tailpipe (EGT) to kinetic energy which is provided to the engine crankshaft. Due to a shift of the operating point of the engine by applying WHR system, the efficiency of the overall system increases and the fuel consumption reduces respectively. However, the integration of WHR system in truck is challenging by using engine cooling system as heat sink for Rankine cycle. The coolant mass flow rate influences strongly on the exhaust gas bypass which ensures a defined subcooling after condenser to avoid cavitation of pump.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Flame Propagation Description in Quasi-Dimensional Spark Ignition Engine Modeling

2018-09-10
2018-01-1655
The engine development process has been enhanced significantly by virtual engineering methods during the last decades. In terms of in-cylinder flow field, charge flow and combustion modelling, 3D-CFD (three dimensional) simulations enable detailed analysis and extended investigations in order to gain additional knowledge about design parameters. However, the computational time of the 3D-CFD is an obvious drawback that prevents a reasonable application for extensive analysis with varying speed, load and transient conditions. State-of-the-art 0D (zero dimensional) approaches close the gap between the demand of high computational efficiency and a satisfying accordance with experimental data. Recent improvements of phenomenological combustion approaches for gasoline spark ignition engines deal with the consideration of detailed flow parameters, the accuracy of the laminar flame speed calculation and the prediction of the knock limit.
Journal Article

Active Crosswind Generation and Its Effect on the Unsteady Aerodynamic Vehicle Properties Determined in an Open Jet Wind Tunnel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0722
In this article the unsteady aerodynamic properties of a 25% scale DrivAer notchback model as well as the influence of the wind tunnel environment on the resulting unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments under crosswind excitation are investigated using experimental and corresponding numerical methods. Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) swing® (side wind generator) is used to reproduce the essential properties of natural stochastic crosswind in the open jet test section of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) model scale wind tunnel (MWK). The results show that the test environment of an open jet wind tunnel alters the amplitudes of side force and yaw moment under crosswind excitation when compared to an ideal environment neglecting wind tunnel interference effects.
Technical Paper

Virtual Optimization of Race Engines Through an Extended Quasi Steady State Lap Time Simulation Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0587
Minimizing the lap time for a given race track is the main target in racecar development. In order to achieve the highest possible performance of the vehicle configuration the mutual interaction at the level of assemblies and components requires a balance between the advantages and disadvantages for each design decision. Especially the major shift in the focus of racecar powerunit development to high efficiency powertrains is driving a development of lean boosted and rightsized engines. In terms of dynamic engine behavior the time delay from requested to provided torque could influence the lap time performance. Therefore, solely maximizing the full load behavior objective is insufficient to achieve minimal lap time. By means of continuous predictive virtual methods throughout the whole development process, the influence on lap time by dynamic power lags, e.g. caused by the boost system, can be recognized efficiently even in the early concept phase.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Engine-Related Restrictions for the Global Efficiency by Using a Rankine Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery System on Heavy Duty Truck by Means of 1D-Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1451
As a promising concept to improve fuel efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas from internal combustion engine has continuously drawn attention from industry in recent years. The greatest achievable global efficiency may be, however, restricted by the engine. On one hand, engine operating conditions have direct impact on the temperature and the mass flow of exhaust gas, which is the waste heat source, on the other hand, the engine cooling system limits the heat rejection from the condenser of the WHR system. This paper aims to evaluate the impacts of the varied engine applications considering the effects of the WHR system on the global efficiency and engine emissions.
Technical Paper

A Simulative Study for Post Oxidation During Scavenging on Turbo Charged SI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0853
Fulfilling exhaust emissions regulations and meet customer performance needs mainly drive the current engine development. Turbocharging system plays a key role for that. Currently turbocharging should provide highest engine power density at high engine speed by also allowing a very responsive performance at low end. This represents a trade-off in turbocharger development. A large scaled turbine allows having moderate exhaust gas back pressure for peak power region, but leading to loss of torque in low engine speed. In the last years of engine development scavenging helped to get away a bit from this trade-off as it increases the turbine mass flow and also reduces cylinder internal residual gas at low engine speed. The mostly in-use lean strategy runs air fuel ratios of closed to stoichiometric mixture in cylinder and global (pre catalyst) of λ = 1.05 to l = 1.3. This will be out of the narrow air fuel ratio band of λ = 1 to ensure NOx conversion in the 3-way-catalyst.
Journal Article

Virtual Full Engine Development: 3D-CFD Simulations of Turbocharged Engines under Transient Load Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0170
The simulation of transient engine behavior has gained importance mainly due to stringent emission limits, measured under real driving conditions and the concurrently demanded vehicle performance. This is especially true for turbocharged engines, as the coupling of the combustion engine and the turbocharger forms a complex system in which the components influence each other remarkably causing, for example, the well-known turbo lag. Because of this strong interaction, during a transient load case, the components should not be analyzed separately since they mutually determine their boundary conditions. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) simulations of full engines in stationary operating points have become practicable several years ago and will remain a valuable tool in virtual engine development; however, the next logical step is to extend this approach into the transient domain.
Journal Article

Development of an Innovative Combustion Process: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition

2017-09-04
2017-24-0147
In the competition for the powertrain of the future the internal combustion engine faces tough challenges. Reduced environmental impact, higher mileage, lower cost and new technologies are required in order to maintain its global position both in public and private mobility. For a long time, researchers have been investigating the so called Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) that promises a higher efficiency due to a rapid combustion - i.e. closer to the ideal thermodynamic Otto cycle - and therefore more work and lower exhaust gas temperatures. Consequently, a rich mixture to cool down the turbocharger under high load may no longer be needed. As the combustion does not have a distinguished flame front it is able to burn very lean mixtures, with the potential of reducing HC and CO emissions. However, until recently, HCCI was considered to be reasonably applicable only at part load operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Investigation of a Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Free-Piston Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0046
The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed-piston combustion engine for application in a Free-Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for a fuel based electrical power supply. With its arrangement, the pistons freely oscillate between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like a crank shaft. Linear alternators convert the kinetic energy of the moving pistons into electric energy. The virtual development of the novel combustion system is divided into two stages: On the one hand, the combustion system including e.g. a cylinder liner, pistons, cooling and lubrication concepts has to be developed.
Technical Paper

Presenting a Fourier-Based Air Path Model for Real-Time Capable Engine Simulation Enhanced by a Semi-Physical NO-Emission Model with a High Degree of Predictability

2016-10-17
2016-01-2231
Longitudinal models are used to evaluate different vehicle-engine concepts with respect to driving behavior and emissions. The engine is generally map-based. An explicit calculation of both fluid dynamics inside the engine air path and cylinder combustion is not considered due to long computing times. Particularly for dynamic certification cycles (WLTC, US06 etc.), dynamic engine effects severely influence the quality of results. Hence, an evaluation of transient engine behavior with map-based engine models is restricted to a certain extent. The coupling of detailed 1D-engine models is an alternative, which rapidly increases the model computation time to approximately 300 times higher than that of real time. In many technical areas, the Fourier transformation (FT) method is applied, which makes it possible to represent superimposed oscillations by their sinusoidal harmonic oscillations of different orders.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Studies on Mixture Formation with an Outward-Opening Nozzle in a SI Engine with CNG-DI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0801
CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fast, Predictive Burn Rate Model for Gasoline-HCCI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0569
Operating gasoline engines at part load in a so-called Gasoline-HCCI (gHCCI) combustion mode has shown promising results in terms of improved efficiency and reduced emissions. So far, research has primarily been focused on experimental investigations on the test bench, whereas fast, predictive burn rate models for use in process calculation have not been available. Such a phenomenological model is henceforth presented. It describes the current burn rate as the sum of a sequential self-ignition process on the one hand and a laminar-turbulent flame propagation on the other hand. The first mechanism is essentially represented by ignition delay calculation, in which the reaction rate is computed separately for some hundred groups of different temperatures based on the Arrhenius equation. Thermal inhomogeneity is described by a contaminated normal distribution which accounts for the influence of wall temperature on mixture close to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions of CI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-1002
This paper presents a quasi-dimensional emission model for calculating the transient nitric oxide emissions of a diesel engine. Using conventional and high-speed measurement technology, steady-state and transient emissions of a V6 diesel engine were examined. Based on measured load steps and steady-state measurements a direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions was found. Load steps to and from, as well as steady-state measurements down to almost stoichiometric global combustion air ratios were used to examine the behavior of nitric oxide formation under these operating conditions. An existing emission model was expanded in order to represent the direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions as well as enabling the forecasting of nitric oxide emissions at low global combustion air ratios: Both particularly important aspects for the simulation of transient emissions.
Journal Article

The Effects of Cooling Air on the Flow Field around a Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1603
Cooling air flow is an important factor when it comes to vehicle performance and operating safety. In addition, it is closely linked to vehicle aerodynamics. In recent years more and more effort is being spent to optimize the losses generated by the flow through the vehicle. Grille shutters, better sealing and ducting are only some examples for innovations in this field of work, resulting in a lower contribution of the cooling air flow to overall drag. But cooling air not only affects the internal flow of the vehicle but also changes the flow around it. This paper will show changes in the flow field around the generic DrivAer model resulting from cooling air flow, especially in the wake behind the car and in the region around the front wheels. The results were gathered using PIV measurements, multi-hole-probe measurements and pitot tube measurements in the 1:4 model scale wind tunnel of IVK University of Stuttgart.
Journal Article

Investigation of Aerodynamic Drag in Turbulent Flow Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1605
In this paper the influence of different turbulent flow conditions on the aerodynamic drag of a quarter scale model with notchback and estate back rear ends is investigated. FKFS swing® (Side Wind Generator) is used to generate a turbulent flow field in the test section of the IVK model scale wind tunnel. In order to investigate the increase in drag with increasing yaw, a steady state yaw sweep is performed for both vehicle models. The shape of the drag curves vary for each vehicle model. The notchback model shows a more pronounced drag minimum at 0° yaw angle and experiences a more severe increase in drag at increasing yaw when compared to the estate back model. Unsteady time averaged aerodynamic drag values are obtained at two flow situations with different turbulent length scales, turbulence intensities, and yaw angle amplitudes. While the first one is representing light wind, the second one is recreating the presence of strong gusty wind.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Gas Exchange (Scavenging) on a Single-Scroll Turbocharged Four Cylinder GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1024
For scavenging the combustion chamber during the gas exchange, a temporary positive pressure gradient between the intake and the exhaust is required. On a single-scroll turbocharged four cylinder engine, the positive pressure gradient is not realized by the spatial separation of the exhaust manifold (twin-scroll), but by the use of suitable short exhaust valve opening times. In order to avoid any influence of the following firing cylinder onto the ongoing scavenging process, the valve opening time has to be shorter than 180 °CA. Such a short valve opening time has both, a strong influence on the gas exchange at the low-end torque and at the maximum engine power. This paper analyzes a phenomenon, which occurs due to short exhaust valve opening durations and late valve timings: A repeated compression of the burned cylinder charge after the bottom dead center, referred to as “recompression” in this paper.
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