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Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Latest Generation Diesel Aftertreatment Systems

A comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of two state-of-the-art diesel AfterTreatment Systems (ATS) for automotive applications is presented in this work. Both systems, designed to fulfill Euro 6 emissions regulations standards, consist of a closed-coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), also known as SCR on Filter (SCRoF or SCRF). While the two systems feature the same Urea Water Solution (UWS) injector, major differences could be observed in the UWS mixing device, which is placed upstream of the SCRoF, whose design represents a crucial challenge due to the severe flow uniformity and compact packaging requirements.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Multi-Event Injection Strategies in a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector

Nowadays, injection rate shaping and multi-pilot events can help to improve fuel efficiency, combustion noise and pollutant emissions in diesel engine, providing high flexibility in the shape of the injection that allows combustion process control. Different strategies can be used in order to obtain the required flexibility in the rate, such as very close pilot injections with almost zero Dwell Time or boot shaped injections with optional pilot injections. Modern Common-Rail Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) should be able to provide these innovative patterns to control the combustion phases intensity for optimal tradeoff between fuel consumption and emission levels.
Journal Article

Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector Operation with Advanced Injection Strategies

The selection and tuning of the Fuel Injection System (FIS) are among the most critical tasks for the automotive diesel engine design engineers. In fact, the injection strongly affects the combustion phenomena through which controlling a wide range of related issues such as pollutant emissions, combustion noise and fuel efficiency becomes feasible. In the scope of the engine design optimization, the simulation is an efficient tool in order to both predict the key performance parameters of the FIS, and to reduce the amount of experiments needed to reach the final product configuration. In this work a complete characterization of a solenoid ballistic injector for a Light-Duty Common Rail system was therefore implemented in a commercially available one-dimensional computational software called GT-SUITE. The main phenomena governing the injector operation were simulated by means of three sub-models (electro-magnetic, hydraulic and mechanical).
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects on Performance and Emissions of an Automotive Euro 5 Diesel Engine Fuelled with B30 from RME and HVO

The effects of using blended renewable diesel fuel (30% vol.), obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The hydraulic behavior of the common rail injection system was verified in terms of injected volume and injection rate with both RME and HVO blends fuelling in comparison with commercial diesel. Further, the spray obtained with RME B30 was analyzed and compared with diesel in terms of global shape and penetration, to investigate the potential differences in the air-fuel mixing process. Then, the impact of a biofuel blend usage on engine performance at full load was first analyzed, adopting the same reference calibration for all the tested fuels.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategies Tuning for the Use of Bio-Derived Fuels in a Common Rail HSDI Diesel Engine

The potentialities in terms of engine performance and emissions reduction of pure biodiesel were examined on a Common Rail HSDI Diesel engine, trying to define a proper tuning of the injection strategies to bio-fuel characteristics. An experimental investigation was therefore carried out on a typical European passenger car Diesel engine, fuelled with a soybean oil derived biodiesel. A standard European diesel fuel was also used as a reference. In particular, the effects of an equal relative air/fuel ratio at full load condition were analysed; further, a sensitivity study on the outcome of the pilot injection timing and duration at part load on engine emissions was performed. Potentialities in recovering the performance gap between fossil fuel and biodiesel and in reducing NOx specific emissions, affecting only to a limited extent the biodiesel emission benefit in terms of CO, HC and FSN, were highlighted.
Technical Paper

Common Rail HSDI Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions with Fossil / Bio-Derived Fuel Blends

In order to evaluate the potentialities of bioderived diesel fuels, the effect of fueling a 1.9 l displacement HSDI automotive Diesel engine with biodiesel and fossil/biodiesel blend on its emission and combustion characteristics has been investigated. The fuels tested were a typical European diesel, a 50% biodiesel blend in the reference diesel, and a 100% biodiesel, obtained by mixing rape seed methyl ester (RME) and recycled cooking oil (CME). Steady state tests were performed at two different engine speeds (2500 and 4000 rpm), and for a wide range of loads, in order to evaluate the behavior of the fuels under a large number of operating conditions. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were analyzed, along with the combustion process in terms of heat release analysis. Experimental evidences showed appreciably lower CO and HC specific emissions and a substantial increase in NOx levels. A significant reduction of smoke emissions was also obtained.