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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of the WLTP Procedure on CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars

2019-10-07
2019-24-0240
Until 2017 in Europe the Type Approval (TA) procedure for light duty vehicles for the determination of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption was based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer. However several studies highlighted significant discrepancies in terms of CO2 emissions between the TA test and the real world, due to the limited representativeness of the test procedure. Therefore, the European authorities decided to introduce a new, up-to date, test procedure capable to closer represent real world driving conditions, called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This work aims to analyze the effects of the new WLTP on vehicle CO2 emissions through both experimental and simulation investigations on two different Euro 5 vehicles, a petrol and a diesel car, representatives of average European passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Combustion Models with Turbulence Chemistry Interaction and Detailed Kinetics

2019-09-09
2019-24-0088
Detailed and fast combustion models are necessary to support design of Diesel engines with low emission and fuel consumption. Over the years, the importance of turbulence chemistry interaction to correctly describe the diffusion flame structure was demonstrated by a detailed assessment with optical data from constant-volume vessel experiments. The main objective of this work is to carry out an extensive validation of two different combustion models which are suitable for the simulation of Diesel engine combustion. The first one is the Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) employing direct chemistry integration. A single flamelet formulation is generally used to reduce the computational time but this aspect limits the capability to reproduce the flame stabilization process. To overcome such limitation, a second model called tabulated flamelet progress variable (TFPV) is tested in this work.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Post Injection Coupled with Extremely High Injection Pressure on Combustion Process and Emission Formation in an Off-Road Diesel Engine: A Numerical and Experimental Investigation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0092
In this paper, a numerical and experimental assessment of post injection potential for soot emissions mitigation in an off-road diesel engine is presented, with the aim of supporting hardware selection and engine calibration processes. As a case study, a prototype off-road 3.4 liters 4-cylinder diesel engine developed by Kohler Engines was selected. In order to explore the possibility to comply with Stage V emission standards without a dedicated aftertreatment for NOx, the engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), allowing high EGR rates (above 30%) even at high load. To enable the exploitation of such high EGR rates with acceptable soot penalties, a two-stage turbocharger and an extremely high-pressure fuel injection system (up to 3000 bar) were adopted. Moreover, post injections events were also exploited to further mitigate soot emissions with acceptable Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) penalties.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Latest Generation Diesel Aftertreatment Systems

2019-09-09
2019-24-0142
A comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of two state-of-the-art diesel AfterTreatment Systems (ATS) for automotive applications is presented in this work. Both systems, designed to fulfill Euro 6 emissions regulations standards, consist of a closed-coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), also known as SCR on Filter (SCRoF or SCRF). While the two systems feature the same Urea Water Solution (UWS) injector, major differences could be observed in the UWS mixing device, which is placed upstream of the SCRoF, whose design represents a crucial challenge due to the severe flow uniformity and compact packaging requirements.
Technical Paper

A Proposed Diesel Powertrain to Meet Future Emission Standards and Achieve High Engine Efficiency

2019-09-09
2019-24-0191
Nowadays, powertrain development activity is performed on the base of fulfilling the stricter emission standards under real driving conditions (RDE). However, the pressure on automotive industry to reduce CO2 emissions in high efficient diesel applications results in lower exhaust gas temperatures. Therefore, it is highly needed to develop advanced vehicle thermal management methods to both fulfil the targets of emission standards and high thermal efficiency, without increasing dramatically the powertrain cost. The aim of this work is to experimentally demonstrate that by utilizing advanced engine and ATS control methods and revising the engine hardware and subsystems can lead to significant improvement on the fuel efficiency and emissions of the conventional diesel powertrain. The revised engine includes an improved combustion system, completely revised turbocharging and air handling system whilst being heavily reworked with respect to FMEP reduction.
Technical Paper

Application of Genetic Algorithm for the Calibration of the Kinetic Scheme of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Model

2018-09-10
2018-01-1762
In this work, a methodology for building and calibrating the kinetic scheme for the 1D CFD model of a zone-coated automotive Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) by means of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach is presented. The methodology consists of a preliminary experimental activity followed by a modelling, optimization and validation process. The tested aftertreatment component presents zone coating, with the front brick side covered with Zeolites in order to ensure hydrocarbons trapping at low temperature, and Platinum Group Metal (PGM), while the rear brick side presents an alumina washcoat with a different PGM loading. Reactor scale samples representative of each coating zone were tested on a Synthetic Gas Bench (SGB), to fully characterize the component’s behavior in terms of Light-off and hydrocarbons (HC) storage for a wide range of inlet feed compositions and temperatures, representative of engine-out conditions.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

2018-09-10
2018-01-1689
A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
Technical Paper

Numerical Assessment of the CO2 Reduction Potential of Variable Valve Actuation on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2018-05-30
2018-37-0006
The increasingly demanding targets in terms of CO2 reduction lead to the adoption of engine technologies left so far for innovation. In diesel engines, some of the primary interests in adopting an advanced air management system, as Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), are related to Miller cycle enabling, and valve timing optimization. In this context, a numerical study was carried out in order to evaluate the impact of VVA on passenger car 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters. The engine model, developed in GT-SUITE, features a predictive combustion model (DIPulse) and it is coupled with a fully predictive fuel injector model for the simulation of complex injection patterns. 3 different VVA techniques were evaluated, all targeting CO2 reduction: Late Exhaust Valve Opening (LEVO), Exhaust Phasing, and Late Inlet Valve Closure (LIVC) for enabling Miller cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Driveline Backlash and Half-shaft Torque Estimation for Electric Powertrains Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1345
The nonlinear behavior of automotive powertrains is mainly due to the presence of backlash between engaging components. In particular, during tip-in or tip-out maneuvers, backlash allows the generation of impacts that negatively affect the vehicle NVH performance. Due to the faster response of electric motors with respect to conventional internal combustion engines, this problem is even more critical for electric vehicles. In order to employ numerical optimal control methods for backlash compensation, the system states have to be known. In this paper, an electric powertrain is modeled as a two-mass oscillator with lumped backlash. This model estimates the system states when in no-contact mode while a Kalman filter that relies only on commonly available speed measurements is active in the contact phase. The powertrain model is validated using experimental data collected during vehicle testing and the online estimated half-shaft torque is shown.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Comparison between a Conventional Euro VI Diesel Engine and an Optimized PCCI Version and Effect of EGR Cooler Fouling on PCCI Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0221
Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is an advanced combustion mode that has the aim of simultaneously reducing particulate matter and nitrogen oxide exhaust emissions, compared with conventional diesel combustion, thanks to a partially premixed charge and low temperature combustion. In this work, PCCI combustion has been implemented by means of an early single-injection strategy and large amounts of recirculated exhaust gas. Starting from a commercial Euro VI on-road engine, the engine hardware has been modified to optimize PCCI operations. This has involved adopting a smaller turbo group, a new combustion chamber and injectors, and a dedicated high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation system. The results, in terms of engine performance and exhaust emissions, under steady-state operation conditions, are presented in this work, where the original Euro VI calibration of the conventional engine has been compared with the PCCI calibration of the optimized hardware engine.
Journal Article

Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Injection Pattern for a Light-Duty Diesel Engine through Numerical Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1124
Development trends in modern common rail fuel injection systems (FIS) show dramatically increasing capabilities in terms of optimization of the fuel injection strategy through a constantly increasing number of injection events per engine cycle as well as through the modulation and shaping of the injection rate. In order to fully exploit the potential of the abovementioned fuel injection strategy optimization, numerical simulation can play a fundamental role by allowing the creation of a kind of a virtual test rig, where the input is the fuel injection rate and the optimization targets are the combustion outputs, such as the burn rate, the pollutant emissions, and the combustion noise (CN).
Technical Paper

Development through Simulation of a Turbocharged 2-Stroke G.D.I. Engine Focused on a Range-Extender Application

2017-11-05
2017-32-0121
An original 2-stroke prototype engine, equipped with an electronically controlled gasoline direct-injection apparatus, has been tested over the last few years, and the performances of these tests have been compared with those obtained using a commercial crankcase-scavenged 2-stroke engine. Very satisfactory results have been obtained, as far as fuel consumption and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas are concerned. Large reductions in fuel consumption and in unburned hydrocarbons have been made possible, because the injection timing causes all the injected gasoline to remain in the combustion chamber, and thus to take part in the combustion process. Moreover, a force-feed lubrication system, like those usually exploited in mass-produced 4-stroke engines, has been employed, because of the presence of an external pump. In fact, it is no longer necessary to add oil to the gasoline in the engine, as the gasoline does not pass through the crankcase volume.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Combustion Process of a High EGR, High Injection Pressure, Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0009
To comply with Stage IV emission standard for off-road engines, Kohler Engines has developed the 100kW rated KDI 3.4 liters diesel engine, equipped with DOC and SCR. Based on this engine, a research project in collaboration between Kohler Engines, Ricardo, Denso and Politecnico di Torino was carried out to exploit the potential of new technologies to meet the Stage IV and beyond emission standards. The prototype engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled EGR system, two stage turbocharger, high pressure fuel injection system capable of very high injection pressure and DOC+DPF aftertreatment system. Since the Stage IV emission standard sets a 0.4 g/kWh NOx limit for the steady state test cycle (NRSC), that includes full load operating conditions, the engine must be operated with very high EGR rates (above 30%) at very high load.
Technical Paper

A Fully Physical Correlation for Low Pressure EGR Control Linearization

2017-09-04
2017-24-0011
Nowadays stringent emission regulations are pushing towards new air management strategies like LP-EGR and HP/LP mix both for passenger car and heavy duty applications, increasing the engine control complexity. Within a project in collaboration between Kohler Engines EMEA, Politecnico di Torino, Ricardo and Denso to exploit the potential of EGR-Only technologies, a 3.4 liters KDI 3404 was equipped with a two stage turbocharging system, an extremely high pressure FIS and a low pressure EGR system. The LP-EGR system works in a closed loop control with an intake oxygen sensor actuating two valves: an EGR valve placed downstream of the EGR cooler that regulates the flow area of the bypass between the exhaust line and the intake line, and an exhaust flap to generate enough backpressure to recirculate the needed EGR rate to cut the NOx emission without a specific aftertreatment device.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Combustion Models for Diesel Engines Based on Tabulated Kinetics in a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0029
Computational fluid dynamics represents a useful tool to support the design and development of Heavy Duty Engines, making possible to test the effects of injection strategies and combustion chamber design for a wide range of operating conditions. Predictive models are required to ensure accurate estimations of heat release and the main pollutant emissions within a limited amount of time. For this reason, both detailed chemistry and turbulence chemistry interaction need to be included. In this work, the authors intend to apply combustion models based on tabulated kinetics for the prediction of Diesel combustion in Heavy Duty Engines. Four different approaches were considered: well-mixed model, presumed PDF, representative interactive flamelets and flamelet progress variable. Tabulated kinetics was also used for the estimation of NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Digital Shaping and Optimization of Fuel Injection Pattern for a Common Rail Automotive Diesel Engine through Numerical Simulation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0025
Development trends in modern Common Rail Fuel Injection System (FIS) show dramatically increasing capabilities in terms of optimization of the fuel injection pattern through a constantly increasing number of injection events per engine cycle along with a modulation and shaping of the injection rate. In order to fully exploit the potential of the abovementioned fuel injection pattern optimization, numerical simulation can play a fundamental role by allowing the creation of a kind of a virtual injection rate generator for the assessment of the corresponding engine outputs in terms of combustion characteristics such as burn rate, emission formation and combustion noise (CN). This paper is focused on the analysis of the effects of digitalization of pilot events in the injection pattern on Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), CN and emissions for a EURO 6 passenger car 4-cylinder diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Different Variable Valve Actuation Strategies on a Light Duty Diesel Engine for Improving Exhaust System Warm Up

2017-09-04
2017-24-0024
The need for achieving a fast warm up of the exhaust system has raised in the recent years a growing interest in the adoption of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology for automotive diesel engines. As a matter of fact, different measures can be adopted through VVA to accelerate the warm up of the exhaust system, such as using hot internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (iEGR) to heat the intake charge, especially at part load, or adopting early Exhaust Valve Opening (eEVO) timing during the expansion stroke, so to increase the exhaust gas temperature during blowdown. In this paper a simulation study is presented evaluating the impact of VVA on the exhaust temperature of a modern light duty 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters, equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT).
Technical Paper

Zero Dimensional Models for EGR Mass-Rate and EGR Unbalance Estimation in Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0070
A precise estimation of the recirculated exhaust gas rate and oxygen concentration as well as a predictive evaluation of the possible EGR unbalance among cylinders are of paramount importance, especially if non-conventional combustion modes, which require high EGR flow-rates, are implemented. In the present paper, starting from the equation related to convergent nozzles, the EGR mass flow-rate is modeled considering the pressure and the temperature upstream of the EGR control valve, as well as the pressure downstream of it. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient are carefully assessed as functions of the valve lift. Other models were fitted using parameters describing the engine working conditions as inputs, following a semi-physical and a purely statistical approach. The resulting models are then applied to estimate EGR rates to both conventional and non-conventional combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

The Impact of WLTP on the Official Fuel Consumption and Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Europe

2017-09-04
2017-24-0133
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main technology options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets set by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for the year 2021. Fuel consumption (FC) and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV FC is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
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