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Technical Paper

Modeling of Long Fiber Reinforced Plastics

2015-04-14
2015-01-0698
Long fiber reinforced plastics (LFRP) have exhibited superior mechanical performance and outstanding design flexibility, bringing them with increasing popularity in the automotive structural design. Due to the injection molding process, the distribution of long fibers varies at different locations throughout the part, resulting in anisotropic and non-uniform mechanical properties of the final LFRP parts. Images from X-ray CT scan of the materials show that local volume fraction of the long fibers tends to be higher at core than at skin layer. Also fibers are bundled and tangled to form clusters. Most of the current micromechanical material models used for LFRP are extended from those for short fibers without adequate validation. The effect of the complexity of long fibers on the material properties is not appropriately considered. Thus, modeling of these materials is lagging behind the material manufacturing and design development, which in turn limits their further development.
Journal Article

Very High Cycle Fatigue of Cast Aluminum Alloys under Variable Humidity Levels

2015-04-14
2015-01-0556
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
Technical Paper

Fluid Structure Interaction Simulations Applied to Automotive Aerodynamics

2015-04-14
2015-01-1544
One of the passive methods to reduce drag on the unshielded underbody of a passenger road vehicle is to use a vertical deflectors commonly called air dams or chin spoilers. These deflectors reduce the flow rate through the non-streamlined underbody and thus reduce the drag caused by underbody components protruding in to the high speed underbody flow. Air dams or chin spoilers have traditionally been manufactured from hard plastics which could break upon impact with a curb or any solid object on the road. To alleviate this failure mode vehicle manufacturers are resorting to using soft plastics which deflect and deform under aerodynamic loading or when hit against a solid object without breaking in most cases. This report is on predicting the deflection of soft chin spoiler under aerodynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads deflect the chin spoiler and the deflected chin spoiler changes the fluid pressure field resulting in a drag change.
Journal Article

HC Traps for Gasoline and Ethanol Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1297
In-line hydrocarbon (HC) traps are not widely used to reduce HC emissions due to their limited durability, high platinum group metal (PGM) concentrations, complicated processing, and insufficient hydrocarbon (HC) retention temperatures required for efficient conversion by the three-way catalyst component. New trapping materials and system architectures were developed utilizing an engine dynamometer test equipped with dual Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers for tracking the adsorption and desorption of various HC species during the light-off period. Parallel laboratory reactor studies were conducted which show that the new HC trap formulations extend the traditional adsorption processes (i.e., based on physic-sorption and/or adsorption at acid sites) to chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in oligomerized, dehydro-cyclization, and partial coke formation.
Journal Article

Regenerative Braking Control Enhancement for the Power Split Hybrid Architecture with the Utilization of Hardware-in-the-loop Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1466
This study presents the utilization of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach for regenerative braking (regen) control enhancement efforts for the power split hybrid vehicle architecture. The HIL stand used in this study includes a production brake control module along with the hydraulic brake system, constituted of an accelerator/brake pedal assembly, electric vacuum booster and pump, brake hydraulic circuit and four brake calipers. This work presents the validation of this HIL simulator with real vehicle data, during mild and heavy braking. Then by using the HIL approach, regen control is enhanced, specifically for two cases. The first case is the jerk in deceleration caused by the brake booster delay, during transitions from regen to friction braking. As an example, the case where the regen is ramped out at a low speed threshold, and the hydraulic braking ramped in, can be considered.
Journal Article

An Efficient, One-Dimensional, Finite Element Helical Spring Model for Use in Planar Multi-Body Dynamics Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1118
The helical spring is one of fundamental mechanical elements used in various industrial applications such as valves, suspension mechanisms, shock and vibration absorbers, hand levers, etc. In high speed applications, for instance in the internal combustion engine or in reciprocating compressor valves, helical springs are subjected to dynamic and impact loading, which can result in a phenomenon called “surge”. Hence, proper design and selection of helical springs should consider modeling the dynamic and impact response. In order to correctly characterize the physics of a helical spring and its response to dynamic excitations, a comprehensive model of spring elasticity for various spring coil and wire geometries, spring inertial effects as well as contacts between the windings leading to a non-linear spring force behavior is required. In practical applications, such models are utilized in parametric design and optimization studies.
Technical Paper

Development of a Canning Method for Catalytic Converters using Ultra Thin Wall Substrates

2004-03-08
2004-01-0144
There are benefits of using ultra thin wall (UTW) substrates (i.e., 900/2, 400/4, etc) in lowering cost and emission level. However, the more fragile mechanical characteristics of the UTW present a challenge to design and manufacture of robust catalytic converters. This paper describes a method of canning trial, where a combined Design of Experiment / Monte-Carlo analysis method was used, to develop and validate a canning method for ultra thin wall substrates. Canning trials were conducted in two stages-- Prototype Canning Trial and Production Canning Trial. In Prototype Canning Trial, the root cause of substrate failure was identified and a model for predicting substrate failure was established. Key factors affecting scrap rate and gap capability were identified and predictions were performed on scrap rate and gap capability with the allowed variations in the key factors. The results provided guidelines in designing production line and process control.
Technical Paper

Automotive Electrical System in the New Millennium

1999-11-15
1999-01-3747
The automotive industry is investigating the change of electrical system voltage in a vehicle from the present 14 volt (12V battery) to 42 volt (36V battery) to integrate new electrical and electronic features. These new features require more amperes, thicker wires, large power devices, and eventually higher cost. The existing 14V system is very difficult to sustain so much content because of constraints of performance, efficiency, cost, packaging space, and manufacture-ability. This paper discusses foreseeable needs moving to a higher voltage, and reasons of 42V selection. It explores benefits and drawbacks when the voltage is changed from 14V to 42V in the areas of wire harness, power electronics, smart switching, power supply, etc. Finally, two typical 42/14V dual voltage architectures are presented for a likely 42V transition scenario.
Technical Paper

Noise Abatement of Sliding Chutes for Metal Stamping Production

1980-02-01
800493
Identification of the noise generating mechanisms of gravity action and vibrator stimulated sliding chutes has resulted in the development of practical and effective noise abatement treatments for both. In the case of gravity action chutes the application of foam-backed thin and narrow spring steel plates on the chute surface achieves the desired effect with noise reduction of 14 to 25 dB(A). With vibrator stimulated chutes progressive steps were taken to attenuate source noise, chute radiation noise and the non-productive component of the force vector from the vibrator, resulting in noise reduction of 25 to 30 dB(A).
Technical Paper

Noise Abatement of In-Plant Trailers

1980-02-01
800494
In-plant trailers constitute a large portion of material handling system in manufacturing plants of the automotive industry. The trailers are among the most intensive noise sources, with radiated noise reaching 110 dBA (Leq). High dynamic loads are also generated on the floor and in the trailer structure. These dynamic loads lead to maintenance problems and inflated inventory of the trailers. Principal mechanisms responsible for generating noise and dynamic loads are identified and treatments to reduce noise and dynamic loads have been developed and investigated on standard trailers. Test results show: for an empty trailer, application of the proposed nonlinear suspension reduces noise 16–18 dBA (Leq) and dynamic load 10 times; for a trailer with an empty rack, application of the proposed nonlinear rack cushion leads to 3–5 dBA (Leq) noise reduction in addition to 8–10 dBA (Leq) reduction due to the suspension.
Technical Paper

Metal Stamping Presses Noise Investigation and Abatement

1980-02-01
800495
Noise generating mechanisms connected with steel-blanking operation has been identified and their engineering treatments developed and tested. Use of rubber-metal laminates proved to be successful for cushioning impacts in kinematic pairs and joints. Use of plastic for the stripper plate construction was recommended. The “die stiffener” concept was developed to reduce main noise peak associated with punch breakthrough. Screening of the die cavity by a transparent curtain of overlapping PVC strips was shown to be effective. A pulse load simulator with adjustable load rate and amplitude has been developed to facilitate testing of presses.
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