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Journal Article

Development of a Comprehensive Validation Method for Dynamic Systems and Its Application on Vehicle Design

2015-04-14
2015-01-0452
Simulation based design optimization has become the common practice in automotive product development. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate various dynamic systems. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess their validity. In model validation, for the purpose of obtaining results successfully, it is vital to select or develop appropriate metrics for specific applications. For dynamic systems, one of the key obstacles of model validation is that most of the responses are functional, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of a metric that can evaluate the differences in terms of phase shift, magnitude and shape, which requires information from both time and frequency domain. And by representing time histories in frequency domain, more intuitive information can be obtained, such as magnitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics.
Journal Article

Research on Validation Metrics for Multiple Dynamic Response Comparison under Uncertainty

2015-04-14
2015-01-0443
Computer programs and models are playing an increasing role in simulating vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. To maximize the effectiveness of these models, the validity and predictive capabilities of these models need to be assessed quantitatively. For a successful implementation of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models as an integrated part of the current vehicle development process, it is necessary to develop objective validation metric that has the desirable metric properties to quantify the discrepancy between multiple tests and simulation results. However, most of the outputs of dynamic systems are multiple functional responses, such as time history series. This calls for the development of an objective metric that can evaluate the differences of the multiple time histories as well as the key features under uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Fluid Structure Interaction Simulations Applied to Automotive Aerodynamics

2015-04-14
2015-01-1544
One of the passive methods to reduce drag on the unshielded underbody of a passenger road vehicle is to use a vertical deflectors commonly called air dams or chin spoilers. These deflectors reduce the flow rate through the non-streamlined underbody and thus reduce the drag caused by underbody components protruding in to the high speed underbody flow. Air dams or chin spoilers have traditionally been manufactured from hard plastics which could break upon impact with a curb or any solid object on the road. To alleviate this failure mode vehicle manufacturers are resorting to using soft plastics which deflect and deform under aerodynamic loading or when hit against a solid object without breaking in most cases. This report is on predicting the deflection of soft chin spoiler under aerodynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads deflect the chin spoiler and the deflected chin spoiler changes the fluid pressure field resulting in a drag change.
Technical Paper

Heat Rejection and Skin Temperatures of an Externally Cooled Exhaust Manifold

2015-04-14
2015-01-1736
The heat rejection rates and skin temperatures of a liquid cooled exhaust manifold on a 3.5 L Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine are determined experimentally using an external cooling circuit, which is capable of controlling the manifold coolant inlet temperature, outlet pressure, and flow rate. The manifold is equipped with a jacket that surrounds the collector region and is cooled with an aqueous solution of ethylene-glycol-based antifreeze to reduce skin temperatures. Results were obtained by sweeping the manifold coolant flow rate from 2.0 to 0.2 gpm at 12 different engine operating points of increasing brake power up to 220 hp. The nominal coolant inlet temperature and outlet pressure were 85 °C and 13 psig, respectively. Data were collected under steady conditions and time averaged. For the majority of operating conditions, the manifold heat rejection rate is shown to be relatively insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate.
Journal Article

An Ensemble Approach for Model Bias Prediction

2013-04-08
2013-01-1387
Model validation is a process of determining the degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model. In reliability based design, the intended use of the model is to identify an optimal design with the minimum cost function while satisfying all reliability constraints. It is pivotal that computational models should be validated before conducting the reliability based design. This paper presents an ensemble approach for model bias prediction in order to correct predictions of computational models. The basic idea is to first characterize the model bias of computational models, then correct the model prediction by adding the characterized model bias. The ensemble approach is composed of two prediction mechanisms: 1) response surface of model bias, and 2) Copula modeling of a series of relationships between design variables and the model bias, between model prediction and the model bias.
Journal Article

A New Approach for Very Low Particulate Mass Emissions Measurement

2013-04-08
2013-01-1557
Pending reductions in light duty vehicle PM emissions standards from 10 to 3 mg/mi and below will push the limits of the gravimetric measurement method. At these levels the PM mass collected approaches the mass of non-particle gaseous species that adsorb onto the filter from exhaust and ambient air. This introduces an intrinsic lower limit to filter based measurement that is independent of improvements achieved in weighing metrology. The statistical variability of back-up filter measurements at these levels makes them an ineffective means for correcting the adsorption artifact. The proposed subtraction of a facility based estimate of the artifact will partially alleviate the mass bias from adsorption, but its impact on weighing variability remains a problem that can reach a significant fraction of the upcoming 3 and future 1 mg/mi standards. This paper proposes an improved PM mass method that combines the gravimetric filter approach with real time aerosol measurement.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Nozzle Clearance Effects on a Radial Turbine: Aerodynamic Performance and Forced Response

2013-04-08
2013-01-0918
Variable nozzle turbine (VNT) technology has become a popular technology for diesel engine application. To pivot the nozzle vane and adjust the turbine operating condition, nozzle clearances are inevitable on both the hub and shroud side of turbine housing. Leakage flow formed inside the nozzle clearance leads to extra flow loss and makes the nozzle exit flow less uniform, thus further affects downstream aerodynamic performance of the rotor. As the leakage mixing with nozzle wake flow, the process is highly unsteady, which increases the fluctuation amplitude of transient load on the rotating turbine wheels. In present paper, firstly steady CFD analysis of a turbocharger turbine was performed at different nozzle openings. Then unsteady simulation of the turbine was carried out to investigate the interaction between the leakage flow through nozzle clearance and the main flow. Nozzle clearance's effect on turbine performance was investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Pore Distributions on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium

2013-04-08
2013-01-0644
In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility.
Technical Paper

Predicted Paths of Soot Particles in the Cylinders of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0148
Soot formation and distribution inside the cylinder of a light-duty direct injection diesel engine, have been predicted using Kiva-3v CFD software. Pathlines of soot particles traced from specific in-cylinder locations and crank angle instants have been explored using the results for cylinder charge motion predicted by the Kiva-3v code. Pathlines are determined assuming soot particles are massless and follow charge motion. Coagulation and agglomeration have not been taken into account. High rates of soot formation dominate during and just after the injection. Oxidation becomes dominant after the injection has terminated and throughout the power stroke. Computed soot pathlines show that soot particles formed just below the fuel spray axis during the early injection period are more likely to travel to the cylinder wall boundary layer. Soot particles above the fuel spray have lesser tendency to be conveyed to the cylinder wall.
Journal Article

The Effect of Piston Cooling Jets on Diesel Engine Piston Temperatures, Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2012-04-16
2012-01-1212
A Ford 2.4-liter 115PS light-duty diesel engine was modified to allow solenoid control of the oil feed to the piston cooling jets, enabling these to be switched on or off on demand. The influence of the jets on piston temperatures, engine thermal state, gaseous emissions and fuel economy has been investigated. With the jets switched off, piston temperatures were measured to be between 23 and 88°C higher. Across a range of speed-load points, switching off the jets increased engine-out emissions of NOx typically by 3%, and reduced emissions of CO by 5-10%. Changes in HC were of the same order and were reductions at most conditions. Fuel consumption increased at low-speed, high-load conditions and decreased at high-speed, low-load conditions. Applying the results to the NEDC drive cycle suggests active on/off control of the jets could reduce engine-out emissions of CO by 6%, at the expense of a 1% increase in NOx, compared to the case when the jets are on continuously.
Journal Article

Investigating the Potential to Reduce Crankshaft Main Bearing Friction During Engine Warm-up by Raising Oil Feed Temperature

2012-04-16
2012-01-1216
Reducing friction in crankshaft bearings during cold engine operation by heating the oil supply to the main gallery has been investigated through experimental investigations and computational modelling. The experimental work was undertaken on a 2.4l DI diesel engine set up with an external heat source to supply hot oil to the gallery. The aim was to raise the film temperature in the main bearings early in the warm up, producing a reduction in oil viscosity and through this, a reduction in friction losses. The effectiveness of this approach depends on the management of heat losses from the oil. Heat transfer along the oil pathway to the bearings, and within the bearings to the journals and shells, reduces the benefit of the upstream heating.
Technical Paper

A New Floating-Liner Test Rig Design to Investigate Factors Influencing Piston-Liner Friction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1328
The largest contribution to engine rubbing friction is made by the piston and piston rings running in the cylinder liner. The magnitude and characteristics of the friction behaviour and the influence on these of factors such as surface roughness, piston design and lubricant properties are of keen interest. Investigating presents experimental challenges, including potential problems of uncontrolled build-to-build variability when component changes are made. These are addressed in the design of a new motored piston and floating liner rig. The design constrains transverse movement of a single liner using cantilevered mounts at the top and bottom. The mounts and two high stiffness strain gauged load cells constrain vertical movement. The outputs of the load cells are processed to extract the force contribution associated with friction. The liner, piston and crankshaft parts were taken from a EuroV-compliant, HPCR diesel engine with a swept capacity of 550cc per cylinder.
Technical Paper

A Model Validation Approach for Various Design Configurations with Insufficient Experimental Data for Model Accuracy Check

2012-04-16
2012-01-0228
Analytical models (math or computer simulation models) are typically built on the basis of many assumptions and simplifications and hence model prediction could be inaccurate in intended applications. Model validation is thus critical to quantify and improve the degree of accuracy of these models. So far, little work considers model validation for various design configurations so that model prediction is accurate in the intended design space. Furthermore, there is a lack of effective approaches that can be used to quantify model accuracy considering different number of experimental data. To overcome these limitations, objective of this paper is to develop a model validation approach for various design configurations with a reference metric for model accuracy check considering different number of experimental data.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Compression Ratio on Indicated Emissions and Fuel Economy Responses to Input Variables for a D.I Diesel Engine Combustion System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0697
The effect of compression ratio on sensitivity to changes in start of injection and air-fuel ratio has been investigated on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine at fixed low and medium speeds and loads. Compression ratio was set to 17.9:1 or 13.7:1 by using pistons with different bowl sizes. Injection timing and air-to-fuel ratio were swept around a nominal map point at which gross IMEP and NOx values were matched for the two compression ratios. It was found that CO, HC and ISFC were higher at low compression ratio, but the soot/NOx trade-off improved and this could be exploited to reduce the fuel economy penalty. Sensitivity to inputs is generally similar, but high compression ratio tended to have steeper response gradients. Reducing compression ratio to 13.7 gave rise to a marked degradation of performance at light load, producing high CO emissions and a fall in combustion efficiency. This could be eased by reducing rail pressure, but the advantage in smoke emission was lost.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Facility to Characterize Performance, Surge, and Acoustics in Turbochargers

2011-05-17
2011-01-1644
A cold turbocharger test facility was designed and developed at The Ohio State University to measure the performance characteristics under steady state operating conditions, investigate unsteady surge, and acquire acoustic data. A specific turbocharger is used for a thermodynamic analysis to determine the capabilities and limitations of the facility, as well as for the design and construction of the screw compressor, flow control, oil, and compression systems. Two different compression system geometries were incorporated. One system allows compressor performance measurements left of the surge line, while the other incorporates a variable-volume plenum. At the full plenum volume and a specific impeller tip speed, the temporal variation of the compressor inlet and outlet and the plenum pressures as well as the turbocharger speed is presented for stable, mild surge, and deep surge operating points.
Technical Paper

Establishing Localized Fire Test Methods and Progressing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0251
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 11 years. In the past couple of years, significant attention has been directed toward a revision to the standard for vehicular hydrogen systems, SAE J2579(1). In addition to streamlining test methodologies for verification of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems (CHSSs) as discussed last year,(2) the working group has been considering the effect of vehicle fires, with the major focus on a small or localized fire that could damage the container in the CHSS and allow a burst before the Pressure Relief Device (PRD) can activate and safely vent the compressed hydrogen stored from the container.
Journal Article

Measurement of r-values of High Strength Steels Using Digital Image Correlation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0234
The r-value is a very important parameter in the forming simulations of high strength steels, especially for steels with prominent anisotropy. R-values for sheet steels conventionally measured by extensometers were found neither consistent nor accurate due to difficulties in measuring the width strain. In this study, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique was applied to determine r-values in Longitudinal (L), Transverse (T) and Diagonal (D) directions for cold rolled DP980 GI, DP780 GI, DP600 GI and BH250 GI sheet steels. The r-values measured from DIC were validated by finite element analysis (FEA) of a uniaxial tensile test for BH250. The simulation results of the load-displacement for two plasticity models were compared to experimental data, with one being the isotropic yield (von-Mises) and the other being an anisotropic model (Hill-48) using the r-value measured from DIC.
Technical Paper

Climate control system improvements for better cabin environmental conditions and reduction of fuel consumption

2007-11-28
2007-01-2673
Since the beginning the world automotive industry looks for new technologies to improve the passengers' life inside vehicles, to optimize the consumption of fuel and to minimize the emission of pollutant. In the present study improvements in the vehicle acclimatization system for better cabin environmental conditions and reduction of fuel consumption were accomplished. The study included improvements in the air chamber and in the refrigeration cycle and was accomplished in a off-road vehicle model, with a bi-fuel engine of 1600 cm3, endowed with an acclimatization system with capacity of 1 TR (usual in this type of automobile). The tests of the acclimatization system performance were executed initially with the conventional system of air conditioning, without any modification (reference system). Along the development of the work modifications were introduced for the determination of the impact of these modifications in the system performance.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Effect of Fuel Composition and Gasoline Additives on Combustion Chamber Deposits

1996-10-01
962012
Since 1992 some vehicles have experienced engine knock or rapping noise during cold starts that is caused by combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI) To better understand the CCDI phenomena, engine dynamometer studies were conducted. Results show that base gasoline composition and detergent additive compositions have significant effects on combustion chamber deposit (CCD) build-up In addition to engine testing, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine a correlation between unwashed gum and CCD levels
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Structures on Fuel/Air Mixing in a Direct-injected Spark-Ignition Engine

1996-05-01
961192
Multidimensional computations were carried out to simulate the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process of a direct-injection spark-ignition engine using a modified version of the KIVA-3 code. A hollow cone spray was modeled using a Lagrangian stochastic approach with an empirical initial atomization treatment which is based on experimental data. Improved Spalding-type evaporation and drag models were used to calculate drop vaporization and drop dynamic drag. Spray/wall impingement hydrodynamics was accounted for by using a phenomenological model. Intake flows were computed using a simple approach in which a prescribed velocity profile is specified at the two intake valve openings. This allowed three intake flow patterns, namely, swirl, tumble and non-tumble, to be considered. It was shown that fuel vaporization was completed at the end of compression stroke with early injection timing under the chosen engine operating conditions.
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