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Technical Paper

Development of the 6.8L V10 Heat Resisting Cast-Steel Exhaust Manifold

This paper presents the experience of Ford Motor Company and Hitachi Metals Ltd., in the development and design of the exhaust manifolds for the new 1997 Ford 6.8L, Vl0 gasoline truck engine. Due to the high-exhaust temperature 1000 °C (1832 °F), heat-resisting nodular graphite irons, such as high-silicon molybdenum iron and austenitic iron with nickel cannot meet the durability requirements, mainly thermal fatigue evaluation. The joint effort by both companies include initial manifold design, prototype development, engine simulation bench testing, failure analysis, material selections (ferritic or austenitic cast steel), production processes (casting, machining) and final inspection. This experience can well be applied to the design and development of new cast stainless-steel exhaust manifolds in the future. This is valid due to the fact that US EPA is requiring all car manufacturers to meet the new Bag 6-Emission Standards which will result in increased exhaust gas temperature.
Technical Paper

A New Mechanism for Measuring Exhaust A/F

Exhaust gas air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors are common devices in powertrain feedback control systems aimed at minimizing emissions. Both resistive (using TiO2) and electrochemical (using ZrO2) mechanisms are used in the high temperature ceramic devices now being employed. In this work a new mechanism for making the measurement is presented based on the change in the workfunction of a Pt film in interaction with the exhaust gas. In particular it is found that the workfunction of Pt increases reversibly by approximately 0.7 V at that point (the stoichiometric ratio) where the exhaust changes from rich to lean conditions. This increase arises from the adsorption of O2 on the Pt surface. On returning to rich conditions, catalytic reaction of the adsorbed oxygen with reducing species returns the workfunction to its original value. Two methods, one capacitive and one thermionic, for electrically sensing this workfunction change and thus providing for a practical device are discussed.
Technical Paper

Dezincification Corrosion and Its Prevention for Copper/Brass Radiators

The use of a corrosion inhibited arsenical brass alloy for copper/brass radiator tubes has been identified as an effective means to protect the radiator tubes from external dezincification attack, which is generally caused by an exposure to excessive road salts in the regions such as Montreal and Toronto in Canada. Laboratory test methods, their results and field data verifying improved radiator life are presented.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.