Benefits of Pd Doped Zeolites for Cold Start HC/NOx Emission Reductions for Gasoline and E85 Fueled Vehicles
In the development of HC traps (HCT) for reducing vehicle cold start hydrocarbon (HC)/nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, zeolite-based adsorbent materials were studied as key components for the capture and release of the main gasoline-type HC/NOx species in the vehicle exhaust gas. Typical zeolite materials capture and release certain HC and NOx species at low temperatures (<200°C), which is lower than the light-off temperature of a typical three-way catalyst (TWC) (≥250°C). Therefore, a zeolite alone is not effective in enhancing cold start HC/NOx emission control. We have found that a small amount of Pd (<0.5 wt%) dispersed in the zeolite (i.e., BEA) can significantly increase the conversion efficiency of certain HC/NOx species by increasing their release temperature. Pd was also found to modify the adsorption process from pure physisorption to chemisorption and may have played a role in the transformation of the adsorbed HCs to higher molecular weight species.