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Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

2019-09-15
2019-01-2141
Analysis of road accident has showed that an important portion of fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles is caused by rollovers. ESC systems in commercial vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurences of jackknifing conditions. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov 1st 2014 for all new vehicles), including commercial vehicles, trucks and trailers.
Technical Paper

Design of a SiC Based Variable Voltage Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0605
Variable Voltage Converter (VVC) is adopted in Power-Split structure of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to optimize the Electric-Drive (e-Drive) system performance. With the wider availability of Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor for automotive applications, there are new opportunities to further optimize and improve performance of VVC, e.g. lower power loss, smaller size, and lighter weight, comparing to use traditional Silicon (Si) IGBT and diode. In this paper, a SiC based VVC is designed, prototyped, and evaluated. In order to maximize the benefits of SiC power devices in VVC application, each key component is carefully designed and selected, including SiC power module, power capacitor, and power inductor. The characterization and evaluation results demonstrate the benefits of advanced SiC devices in VVC design optimization, and such benefits quantified in this paper.
Technical Paper

Detection of Presence and Posture of Vehicle Occupants Using a Capacitance Sensing Mat

2019-04-02
2019-01-1232
Capacitance sensing is the technology that detects the presence of nearby objects by measuring the change in capacitance. A change in capacitance is triggered either by a change in dielectric constant, area of overlap or distance of separation between the electrodes of the capacitor. It is a technology that finds wide use in applications such as touch screens, proximity sensing etc. Drawing motivation from such applications, this paper investigates how capacitive sensing can be employed to detect the presence and posture of occupants inside vehicles. Compared to existing solutions, the proposed approach is low-cost, easy to deploy and highly efficient. The sensing system consists of a capacitance-sensing mat that is embedded with copper foils and an associated sensing circuitry. Inside the mat the foils are arranged in rows and columns to form several touch-nodes across the surface of the mat.
Technical Paper

Impacts of WLTP Test Procedure on Fuel Consumption Estimation of Common Electrified Powertrains

2019-04-02
2019-01-0306
The new European test procedure, called the worldwide harmonized light vehicle test procedure (WLTP), deviates in some details from the current NEDC-based test which will have an impact on the determination of the official EU fuel consumption values for the new vehicles. The adaptation to the WLTP faces automakers with new challenges for meeting the stringent EU fuel consumption and CO2 emissions standards. This paper investigates the main changes that the new test implies to a mid-size sedan electrified vehicle design and quantifies their impact on the vehicles fuel economy. Three common electrified powertrain architectures including series, parallel P2, and powersplit are studied. A Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) optimization-based energy management control strategy is developed to evaluate the energy consumption of the electrified vehicles in both charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes.
Technical Paper

Policies to Maximize Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrids in a Rental Fleet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0670
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV) technology offers the ability to achieve zero tailpipe emissions coupled with convenient refueling. Fleet adoption of PHEVs, often motivated by organizational and regulatory sustainability targets, may not always align with optimal use cases. In a car rental application, barriers to improving fuel economy over a conventional hybrid include: diminished benefits of additional battery capacity on long-distance trips, sparse electric charging infrastructure at the fleet location, lack of renter understanding of electric charging options, and a principle-agent problem where the driver accrues fewer benefits than costs for actions that improve fuel economy, like charging and eco-driving. This study uses high-resolution driving data collected from twelve Ford Fusion Energi sedans owned by University of California, Davis (UC Davis), where the vehicles are rented out for university-related activities.
Technical Paper

Model Prediction Based Boost Converter Control Method for HEV Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0452
Boost converter is widely applied to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Typical control methods employ two proportional-integral (PI) regulators to fulfill DC bus voltage closed-loop control and inductor current closed-loop control, respectively. They have intrinsic performance limitations: 1) slow dynamic response of DC bus voltage regulation; 2) high overshoot voltage during transient state; 3) it is difficult to design four gains best fit all operational conditions. This paper proposes a model prediction based boost converter control method for HEV applications. The proposed control method employs model based instantaneous power prediction and dynamic optimization in real time by minimizing a defined cost function to overcome above issues. First of all, the issues of typical control methods are analyzed. Then, the proposed control method is presented in detail, followed by simulation verification and comparison with PI based control method.
Technical Paper

A Packaging Layout to Mitigate Crosstalk for SiC Devices

2018-04-03
2018-01-0462
SiC devices have inherent fast switching capabilities due to their superior material properties, and are considered potential candidates to replace Si devices for traction inverters in electrified vehicles in future. However, due to the comparatively low gate threshold voltage, SiC devices may encounter oscillatory false triggering especially during fast switching. This paper analyzed the causes of false triggering, and also studied the impact of a critical parasitic parameter - common source inductance. It is shown that crosstalk is the main cause for the false triggering in the case and some positive common source inductance help to mitigate the crosstalk issue. A packaging layout method is proposed to create the positive common source inductance through layout of control terminals / busbars, and/or the use of control terminal bonded wires at different height.
Technical Paper

System-Level Investigation of Traction Inverter High-Temperature Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0464
In this paper, the high-temperature capability of the traction inverter was investigated by applying coolant with temperature much higher than the typical allowed value until the system fails. The purpose of this study is to identify the weakest link of the traction inverter system in terms of temperature. This study was divided into two stages. In the first stage, a series of nondestructive tests were carried out to investigate temperature rise (ΔT) of the key component above coolant temperature as a function of the outside controllable parameters-i.e., dc link voltage, phase current, and switching frequency. The key components include power modules, gate driver board, gate driver power supply, current sensors and dc link capacitor. Their temperatures were monitored by thermocouples or on-die temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

Fidelity Enhancement of Power-Split Hybrid Vehicle HIL (Hardware-in-the-Loop) Simulation by Integration with High Voltage Traction Battery Subsystem

2018-04-03
2018-01-0008
Due to the increasing concerns on energy and environmental issues, the automotive industry has seen increased growth and development of electric and electrified vehicles [1]. The power-split design is one of the most common drivetrain configurations of a hybrid or electrified vehicle. The propulsion system of a power-split hybrid vehicle typically comprises of an engine drive system in which the engine, drivetrain and generator are mechanically coupled on a planetary gear set driveline while the electric drive system consists of a high voltage battery and a traction motor [2]. In recent years, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation has become an increasingly common approach for controls rapid prototyping and validation as part of the automotive product development cycle [2, 3].
Technical Paper

Full Scale Burn Demonstration of Two 2013 Ford Fusions - Arc Mapping Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-1439
Vehicle fire investigators sometimes use the existence and location of thermally damaged wiring (arced, shorted, melted, & beaded) discovered in a post burn analysis of a vehicle as an indication of the fire origin and its cause. One systematic method of analysis is to use the process of arc mapping. To examine the reliability of arc mapping in motor vehicle fires, two full scale burn demonstrations were conducted on 2013 Ford Fusions. Both vehicles had similar fire origins artificially initiated in the interior of the vehicles near the driver’s front seat. The engines were running and all accessories were off. During the burn sequence, occurrences of fire induced unintended electrical activity were captured with video and still photography. Examples of this unintended activity include lights, horn, wipers, and decklid latch activation. The burn concluded when the measured battery voltage went to zero in demonstration 1.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Variable Switching Frequency and DPWM Switching Schemes on the Losses of Traction Drives

2017-03-28
2017-01-1227
This paper studies different switching schemes for loss reduction in a traction motor drive. The system under examination is composed of a battery, a 2 level Voltage Source Inverter, and an Interior Permanent Magnet motor. Discontinuous PWM (DPWM) control strategy is widely used in this type of motor drive for the reduction of losses. In some publications, the effect of the DPWM modulation scheme is compared to the reduction of the switching frequency which can also cause a reduction in switching losses of the inverter. Extensive studies have examined the effect of variation of the switching frequency on the motor and inverter losses. However, the effect of applying both switching schemes simultaneously has not been explored. This paper will use a system that is operated at a fixed switching frequency as the baseline. Afterwards, three different switching schemes will be studied and compared to the baseline.
Technical Paper

Life Balancing – A Better Way to Balance Large Batteries

2017-03-28
2017-01-1210
A new cell balancing technology was developed under a Department of Energy contract which merges the DC/DC converter function into cell balancing. Instead of conventional passive cell balancing technology which bypasses current through a resistor, or active cell balancing which moves current from one cell to another, with significant cost and additional inefficiencies, this concept takes variable amount of current from each cell or small group of cells and converts it to current for the low voltage system.
Technical Paper

Deconstruction of UN38.3 into a Process Flowchart

2017-03-28
2017-01-1208
This paper will discuss a compliance demonstration methodology for UN38.3, an international regulation which includes a series of tests that, when successfully met, ensure that lithium metal and lithium ion batteries can be safely transported. Many battery safety regulations, such as FMVSS and ECE, include post-crash criteria that are clearly defined. UN38.3 is unique in that the severity of the tests drove changes to battery design and function. Another unique aspect of UN38.3 is that the regulatory language can lead to different interpretations on how to run the tests and apply pass/fail criteria; there is enough ambiguity that the tests could be run very differently yet all meet the actual wording of the regulation. A process was created detailing exactly how to run the tests to improve consistency among test engineers. As part of this exercise, several tools were created which assist in generating a test plan that complies with the UN38.3 regulation.
Technical Paper

Traction Inverter Design with a Direct Bypass to Boost Converter

2017-03-28
2017-01-1247
Direct bypass to DC-DC boost converter in traction inverter increases converter's capability and efficiency significantly by providing a lower loss path for power flow between the battery and DC-link terminal. A bypass using diode is an excellent solution to achieve this capability at low cost and system complexity. Bypass diode operates in the linear operating region (DC Q-point) when the battery discharges through the bypass diode to drive the electric motors. Therefore, thermal stress on the DC-link capacitor is shared between the input and DC-link capacitors through the bypass diode. On the other hand, inverters introduce voltage oscillation in the DC-link terminal which results in unwanted energy oscillation through the bypass diode during battery charging. Both of these phenomena have been explained in details.
Technical Paper

Control of Gear Ratio and Slip in Continuously Variable Transmissions: A Model Predictive Control Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1104
The efficiency of power transmission through a Van Doorne type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) can be improved by allowing a small amount of relative slip between the engine and driveline side pulleys. However, excessive slip must be avoided to prevent transmission wear and damage. To enable fuel economy improvements without compromising drivability, a CVT control system must ensure accurate tracking of the gear ratio set-point while satisfying pointwise-in-time constraints on the slip, enforcing limits on the pulley forces, and counteracting driveline side and engine side disturbances. In this paper, the CVT control problem is approached from the perspective of Model Predictive Control (MPC). To develop an MPC controller, a low order nonlinear model of the CVT is established. This model is linearized at a selected operating point, and the resulting linear model is extended with extra states to ensure zero steady-state error when tracking constant set-points.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Liquid over Air Cooling of High Voltage Battery Packs in an Electrified Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1171
Automotive vehicle manufactures are implementing electrification technologies in many vehicle line-ups to improve fuel economy and meet emission standards. As a part of electrification, High Voltage (HV) battery packs are integrated alongside internal combustion engines. Recent generation HV batteries allow extensive power usage, by allowing greater charge and discharge currents and broader State of Charge (SOC) ranges. Heat generated during the charge-discharge cycles must be managed effectively to maintain battery cell performance and life. This situation requires a cooling system with higher efficiency than earlier generation electrified powertrains. There are multiple thermal solutions for cooling HV battery packs including forced air, liquid, direct refrigerant, and passive cooling. The most common types of HV battery pack cooling, for production vehicles, are air cooled using cabin interior air and liquid cooled using powertrain cooling systems.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Effects of Auxiliary Electrical Loads on Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Economy

2017-03-28
2017-01-1155
In recent years the fuel efficiency of modern hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains has progressed to a point where low voltage auxiliary electrical system loads have a pronounced impact on fuel economy (FE). While improving the energy consumption of an individual component may result in minor improvements, the collective optimization of such loads across a complete vehicle system can result in meaningful FE gains. Traditional methods using chassis dynamometer testing alone to quantify the impact of a specific auxiliary load can lead to issues where signal state changes are too small for accurate detection. This presents difficulties in accurately predicting the influence of such loads on FE of next-generation electrified vehicles under development. This paper describes a newly developed method where dynamometer test results are combined with computer simulation analyses to create a practical technique for assessing the impact of small changes in auxiliary load energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Fast Charging Lithium-Ion Batteries

2017-03-28
2017-01-1204
We try to understand the fast recharge capability of automotive lithium-ion batteries and its effect of fast charge on capacity degradation. We find out that 5 Ah prismatic Li-ion cells can be fully recharged in 3 minutes under a constant rate of 20C, or in 2 min (25.5C) from 0% to 85% state of charge (SOC) without undue stresses. We cycle the battery at 16C charge rate from 0 to 100%SOC and do not see any unexpected battery capacity loss in 50 cycles, where half of the cycles are charged at1C-rate as a reference capacity check. We realize that the batteries under the fast charge tests do not experience any negative impacts related to mass transport in either solid electrodes or the electrolyte system. In the paper, we propose a new procedure to measure the ac and dc resistances of the battery under continuous operation. Electrochemical impedance analyses on the whole battery and the individual electrodes are also conducted.
Technical Paper

Impact of Manual Service Disconnect in an Automotive Traction Battery System (RESS)

2017-03-28
2017-01-1195
SAE standards require the function of a Manual Service Disconnect (MSD), when open, to remove any voltage between positive and negative Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) output terminals. Another SAE standard specifies that measured voltage across all external battery terminal sets shall be less than 60 VDC within 5 seconds after the manual disconnect is actuated with the automatic disconnect (e.g., contactors) closed. In this paper, the location of the manual service disconnect is reviewed to meet isolation requirement of the battery pack system (i.e., RESS). Battery architectures with manual service disconnect located at the most positive side, most negative side, and center of the array or the pack were studied. Voltage measurement points and single point failure modes were considered. It was found that MSD location for a single contactor pack is most effective in reducing voltage potential at the terminals when placed on the other side of the contactor.
Technical Paper

Manage and Optimize Power System to Maximize Steering Assist and Stop-Start Availability

2017-03-28
2017-01-1176
Auto stop-start (Engine stop-start, ESS) has become a widely used feature to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions particularly in congested cities. Typically, vehicles equipped with such systems include two DC power sources that are coupled in parallel: a primary and a secondary power source. The primary power source supplies energy to the starter to crank the engine, while the secondary power source supplies energy to the rest of the vehicle electric loads. During an auto-stop event, a controllable switch decouples the two power sources. Moreover, operating current, voltage and the State of Charge (SOC) are monitored to ensure enough energy for the next auto-start event. When any of these operating parameters are below the threshold values, the controllable switch opens to isolate the two batteries and then the engine is automatically started.
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