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Technical Paper

A Novel Technique for Measuring Cycle-Resolved Cold Start Emissions Applied to a Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0312
There is keen interest in understanding the origins of engine-out unburned hydrocarbons emitted during SI engine cold start. This is especially true for the first few firing cycles, which can contribute disproportionately to the total emissions measured over standard drive cycles such as the US Federal Test Procedure (FTP). This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for capturing and quantifying unburned hydrocarbon emissions (HC), CO, and CO2 on a cycle-by-cycle basis during an engine cold start. The method was demonstrated by applying it to a 4 cylinder 2 liter GTDI (Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection) engine for cold start conditions at an ambient temperature of 22°C. For this technique, the entirety of the engine exhaust gas was captured for a predetermined number of firing cycles.
Technical Paper

Calibration of Electrochemical Models for Li-ion Battery Cells Using Three-Electrode Testing

2020-04-14
2020-01-1184
Electrochemical models of lithium ion batteries are today a standard tool in the automotive industry for activities related to the computer-aided engineering design, analysis, and optimization of energy storage systems for electrified vehicles. One of the challenges in the development or use of such models is the need of detailed information on the cell and electrode geometry or properties of the electrode and electrolyte materials, which are typically unavailable or difficult to retrieve by end-users. This forces engineers to resort to “hand-tuning” of many physical and geometrical parameters, using standard cell-level characterization tests. This paper proposes a method to provide information and data on individual electrode performance that can be used to simplify the calibration process for electrochemical models.
Technical Paper

DC-Link Capacitor Sizing in HEV/EV e-Drive Power Electronic System from Stability Viewpoint

2020-04-14
2020-01-0468
Selection of the DC-link capacitance value in an HEV/EV e-Drive power electronic system depends on numerous factors including required voltage/current ratings of the capacitor, power dissipation, thermal limitation, energy storage capacity and impact on system stability. A challenge arises from the capacitance value selection based on DC-link stability due to the influence of multiple hardware parameters, control parameters, operating conditions and cross-coupling effects among them. This paper discusses an impedance-based methodology to determine the minimum required DC-link capacitance value that can enable stable operation of the system in this multi-dimensional variable space. A broad landscape of the minimum capacitance values is also presented to provide insights on the sensitivity of system stability to operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Evaluation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System on Gasoline Electric Hybrid Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0902
Diagnosing the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve remains one of the most challenging problems in emissions control systems diagnostics. California Air Resources Board (CARB) has started imposing specific requirements on automotive companies since 2011 that required the integration of on-board diagnostics (OBD) monitor for the detection and reporting of this type of control malfunction. In this paper, some methodologies of EGR valve system monitoring are investigated and a novel approach is proposed that shows reliable detection capability compared to the other methods. The proposed method requires certain conditions during deceleration fuel shutoff events to intrusively reactivate the EGR system and determine the obstructed valve condition. The method was evaluated on a 2.5L iVCT engine in an experimental Ford Escape Full Hybrid Electric vehicle. Vehicle results are shown and discussed.
Journal Article

Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-Lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0846
This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking system and anti-lock brake system (ABS) control during an ABS event for hybrid and electric vehicles with drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The control objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with regenerative braking disabled. The paper first presents a detailed control system analysis to reveal the inherent property of non-zero regenerative braking torque control during ABS event and explain the reason why regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during ABS event with existing regenerative braking control strategies.
Technical Paper

Ignition Switch Material Definition to Avoid Hard to Start Issue

2020-01-13
2019-36-0138
Nowadays, develop and launch a new product in the market is hard to every company. When we talk about a launch new vehicle to the customers, this task could be considered more difficult than other products whether imagine how fast the technology should be integrated to vehicle. There are main pillars to be considered in this scenario: low cost, design, innovation, competitiveness and safety. Whereas Brazilian economic scenario, all OEM has to be aware to opportunity to make the product profitable and keep acceptable quality. This combination between low cost and quality could be broken or not distributed equally between the pillars. Based on that, in some cases could have a quality broken that will affect directly the customer. This paper will focus on project to define of the new ignition switch, when the main challenge to achieve the cost reduction target was defined to change a material to electrical terminals.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

2019-09-15
2019-01-2141
Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers. ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.
Technical Paper

Developing a Real-World, Second-by-Second Driving Cycle Database through Public Vehicle Trip Surveys

2019-07-08
2019-01-5074
Real-world second-by-second vehicle driving cycle data is very important for vehicle research and development. A project solely dedicated to generating such information would be tremendously costly and time consuming. Alternatively, we developed such a database by utilizing two publicly available passenger vehicle travel surveys: 2004-2006 Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) Travel Survey and 2011 Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) Travel Survey. The surveys complement each other - the former is in low time resolution but covers driver operation for over one year whereas the latter is in high time resolution but represents only one-week-long driving operation. After analyzing the PSRC survey, we chose 382 vehicles, each of which continuously operated for one year, and matched their trips to all the ARC trips. The matching is carried out based on trip distance first, then on average speed, and finally on duration.
Technical Paper

Design of a SiC Based Variable Voltage Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0605
Variable Voltage Converter (VVC) is adopted in Power-Split structure of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to optimize the Electric-Drive (e-Drive) system performance. With the wider availability of Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor for automotive applications, there are new opportunities to further optimize and improve performance of VVC, e.g. lower power loss, smaller size, and lighter weight, comparing to use traditional Silicon (Si) IGBT and diode. In this paper, a SiC based VVC is designed, prototyped, and evaluated. In order to maximize the benefits of SiC power devices in VVC application, each key component is carefully designed and selected, including SiC power module, power capacitor, and power inductor. The characterization and evaluation results demonstrate the benefits of advanced SiC devices in VVC design optimization, and such benefits quantified in this paper.
Technical Paper

Impacts of WLTP Test Procedure on Fuel Consumption Estimation of Common Electrified Powertrains

2019-04-02
2019-01-0306
The new European test procedure, called the worldwide harmonized light vehicle test procedure (WLTP), deviates in some details from the current NEDC-based test which will have an impact on the determination of the official EU fuel consumption values for the new vehicles. The adaptation to the WLTP faces automakers with new challenges for meeting the stringent EU fuel consumption and CO2 emissions standards. This paper investigates the main changes that the new test implies to a mid-size sedan electrified vehicle design and quantifies their impact on the vehicles fuel economy. Three common electrified powertrain architectures including series, parallel P2, and powersplit are studied. A Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) optimization-based energy management control strategy is developed to evaluate the energy consumption of the electrified vehicles in both charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes.
Technical Paper

Detection of Presence and Posture of Vehicle Occupants Using a Capacitance Sensing Mat

2019-04-02
2019-01-1232
Capacitance sensing is the technology that detects the presence of nearby objects by measuring the change in capacitance. A change in capacitance is triggered either by a change in dielectric constant, area of overlap or distance of separation between the electrodes of the capacitor. It is a technology that finds wide use in applications such as touch screens, proximity sensing etc. Drawing motivation from such applications, this paper investigates how capacitive sensing can be employed to detect the presence and posture of occupants inside vehicles. Compared to existing solutions, the proposed approach is low-cost, easy to deploy and highly efficient. The sensing system consists of a capacitance-sensing mat that is embedded with copper foils and an associated sensing circuitry. Inside the mat the foils are arranged in rows and columns to form several touch-nodes across the surface of the mat.
Technical Paper

Fidelity Enhancement of Power-Split Hybrid Vehicle HIL (Hardware-in-the-Loop) Simulation by Integration with High Voltage Traction Battery Subsystem

2018-04-03
2018-01-0008
Due to the increasing concerns on energy and environmental issues, the automotive industry has seen increased growth and development of electric and electrified vehicles [1]. The power-split design is one of the most common drivetrain configurations of a hybrid or electrified vehicle. The propulsion system of a power-split hybrid vehicle typically comprises of an engine drive system in which the engine, drivetrain and generator are mechanically coupled on a planetary gear set driveline while the electric drive system consists of a high voltage battery and a traction motor [2]. In recent years, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation has become an increasingly common approach for controls rapid prototyping and validation as part of the automotive product development cycle [2, 3].
Technical Paper

Full Scale Burn Demonstration of Two 2013 Ford Fusions - Arc Mapping Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-1439
Vehicle fire investigators sometimes use the existence and location of thermally damaged wiring (arced, shorted, melted, & beaded) discovered in a post burn analysis of a vehicle as an indication of the fire origin and its cause. One systematic method of analysis is to use the process of arc mapping. To examine the reliability of arc mapping in motor vehicle fires, two full scale burn demonstrations were conducted on 2013 Ford Fusions. Both vehicles had similar fire origins artificially initiated in the interior of the vehicles near the driver’s front seat. The engines were running and all accessories were off. During the burn sequence, occurrences of fire induced unintended electrical activity were captured with video and still photography. Examples of this unintended activity include lights, horn, wipers, and decklid latch activation. The burn concluded when the measured battery voltage went to zero in demonstration 1.
Technical Paper

Policies to Maximize Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrids in a Rental Fleet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0670
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV) technology offers the ability to achieve zero tailpipe emissions coupled with convenient refueling. Fleet adoption of PHEVs, often motivated by organizational and regulatory sustainability targets, may not always align with optimal use cases. In a car rental application, barriers to improving fuel economy over a conventional hybrid include: diminished benefits of additional battery capacity on long-distance trips, sparse electric charging infrastructure at the fleet location, lack of renter understanding of electric charging options, and a principle-agent problem where the driver accrues fewer benefits than costs for actions that improve fuel economy, like charging and eco-driving. This study uses high-resolution driving data collected from twelve Ford Fusion Energi sedans owned by University of California, Davis (UC Davis), where the vehicles are rented out for university-related activities.
Technical Paper

A Packaging Layout to Mitigate Crosstalk for SiC Devices

2018-04-03
2018-01-0462
SiC devices have inherent fast switching capabilities due to their superior material properties, and are considered potential candidates to replace Si devices for traction inverters in electrified vehicles in future. However, due to the comparatively low gate threshold voltage, SiC devices may encounter oscillatory false triggering especially during fast switching. This paper analyzed the causes of false triggering, and also studied the impact of a critical parasitic parameter - common source inductance. It is shown that crosstalk is the main cause for the false triggering in the case and some positive common source inductance help to mitigate the crosstalk issue. A packaging layout method is proposed to create the positive common source inductance through layout of control terminals / busbars, and/or the use of control terminal bonded wires at different height.
Technical Paper

System-Level Investigation of Traction Inverter High-Temperature Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0464
In this paper, the high-temperature capability of the traction inverter was investigated by applying coolant with temperature much higher than the typical allowed value until the system fails. The purpose of this study is to identify the weakest link of the traction inverter system in terms of temperature. This study was divided into two stages. In the first stage, a series of nondestructive tests were carried out to investigate temperature rise (ΔT) of the key component above coolant temperature as a function of the outside controllable parameters-i.e., dc link voltage, phase current, and switching frequency. The key components include power modules, gate driver board, gate driver power supply, current sensors and dc link capacitor. Their temperatures were monitored by thermocouples or on-die temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

Model Prediction Based Boost Converter Control Method for HEV Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0452
Boost converter is widely applied to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Typical control methods employ two proportional-integral (PI) regulators to fulfill DC bus voltage closed-loop control and inductor current closed-loop control, respectively. They have intrinsic performance limitations: 1) slow dynamic response of DC bus voltage regulation; 2) high overshoot voltage during transient state; 3) it is difficult to design four gains best fit all operational conditions. This paper proposes a model prediction based boost converter control method for HEV applications. The proposed control method employs model based instantaneous power prediction and dynamic optimization in real time by minimizing a defined cost function to overcome above issues. First of all, the issues of typical control methods are analyzed. Then, the proposed control method is presented in detail, followed by simulation verification and comparison with PI based control method.
Journal Article

Data Driven Calibration Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0607
Designing a control system that can robustly detect faulted emission control devices under all environmental and driving conditions is a challenging task for OEMs. In order to gain confidence in the control strategy and the values of tunable parameters, the test vehicles need to be subjected to their limits during the development process. Complexity of modern powertrain systems along with the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) monitors with multidimensional thresholds make it difficult to anticipate all the possible scenarios. Finding optimal solutions to these problems using traditional calibration processes can be time and resource intensive. A possible solution is to take a data driven calibration approach. In this method, a large amount of data is collected by collaboration of different groups working on the same powertrain. Later, the data is mined to find the optimum values of tunable parameters for the respective vehicle functions.
Technical Paper

Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

2017-03-28
2017-01-0183
It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work. The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements.
Technical Paper

Open Source Dynamometer with Closed-Loop Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0382
The development of an automatic control system for a towing dynamometer used for testing is described in this paper. The process involved the deployment of new power electronics circuit boards, a TELMA retarder, instrumentation and a human machine interface (HMI) achieved through an open source platform. The purpose of this platform is to have a low cost system that allows further function development, data acquisition and communication with other devices. This system is intended as a novel solution that will allow closed loop and automated tests integrated with PCM data for engine calibration. It is projected to be part of a flexible calibration system with direct communication to the interfaces used during development (ATI, ETAS), which will be used to achieve lean test and development schedules.
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