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Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

2019-09-15
2019-01-2141
Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers. ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.
Technical Paper

Developing a Real-World, Second-by-Second Driving Cycle Database through Public Vehicle Trip Surveys

2019-07-08
2019-01-5074
Real-world second-by-second vehicle driving cycle data is very important for vehicle research and development. A project solely dedicated to generating such information would be tremendously costly and time consuming. Alternatively, we developed such a database by utilizing two publicly available passenger vehicle travel surveys: 2004-2006 Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) Travel Survey and 2011 Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) Travel Survey. The surveys complement each other - the former is in low time resolution but covers driver operation for over one year whereas the latter is in high time resolution but represents only one-week-long driving operation. After analyzing the PSRC survey, we chose 382 vehicles, each of which continuously operated for one year, and matched their trips to all the ARC trips. The matching is carried out based on trip distance first, then on average speed, and finally on duration.
Technical Paper

Optimal Pressure Relief Groove Geometry for Improved NVH Performance of Variable Displacement Oil Pumps

2019-06-05
2019-01-1548
Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) is becoming the design of choice for engine friction reduction and fuel economy improvement. Unfortunately, this pump creates excessive pressure ripples, at the outlet port during oil pump shaft rotation, causing oscillating forces within the lubrication system and leading to the generation of objectionable tonal noises and vibrations. In order to minimize the level of noise, different vanes spacing and porting geometries are used. Moreover, an oil pressure relief groove can be added, at the onset of the high pressure port, to achieve this goal. This paper presents an optimization method to identify the best geometry of the oil pressure relief groove. This method integrates adaptive meshing, 3D CFD simulation, Matlab routine and Genetic Algorithm based optimization. The genetic algorithm is used to create the required design space in order to perform a multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameterized groove geometries.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning Algorithm for the Prediction of Idle Combustion Uniformity

2019-06-05
2019-01-1551
Combustion stability is a key contributor to engine shake at idle speed and can impact the overall perception of vehicle quality. The sub-firing harmonics of the combustion torque are used as a metric to assess idle shake and are, typically, measured at different levels of engine break mean effective pressure (BMEP). Due to the nature of the combustion phenomena at idle, it is clear that predicting the cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder combustion pressure variations, required to assess the combustion uniformity, cannot be achieved with the state of the art simulation technology. Inspired by the advancement in the field of machine learning and artificial intelligence and by the availability of a large amount of measured combustion test data, this paper explores the performance of various machine learning algorithms in predicting the idle combustion uniformity.
Technical Paper

Surge Prediction in a Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) Compressor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1490
The Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) used in Ford’s 6.7L Scorpion Diesel is analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to draw conclusions about the compressor stability at low mass flows. The SST compressor concept consists of a double-sided wheel which flows in parallel fed by two separate inlets (front and rear), followed by a single vane-less diffuser, and a volute. CFD simulations for the full stage are performed at low mass flow rates Both, front and rear, sides have ported shroud casing-treatment (CT) in the inlet region. An objective of the analysis is to determine which side of the SST unit compressor (front or rear on the double-sided wheel) suffers flow break down first as the mass flow is reduced, and its impact on the overall stability of the SST compressor. Another objective is to better understand the interactions between the compressor inlet flow and the flow through the casing-treatment.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Effect of Initialization Errors for Enabling Accurate Online Drivetrain Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-0347
Simulations conducted on-board in a vehicle control module can offer valuable information to control strategies. Continued improvements to on-board computing hardware make online simulations of complex dynamic systems such as drivetrains within reach. This capability enables predictions of the system response to various control actions and disturbances. Implementation of online simulations requires model initialization that is consistent with the physical drivetrain state. However, sensor signals and estimated variables are susceptible to errors, compromising the accuracy of the initialization and any future state predictions as the simulation proceeds through the numerical integration process. This paper describes a drivetrain modeling and analysis method that accounts for initialization errors, thereby enabling accurate simulations of system behaviors.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Automatic Speech Recognition Failures in the Car

2019-04-02
2019-01-0397
In this paper, an approach to analyze voice recognition data to understand how customers use voice recognition systems is explored. The analysis will help identify ASR failures and usability related issues that customers encounter while using the voice recognition system. This paper also examines the impact of these failures on the individual speech domains (media control, phone, navigation, etc.). Such information can be used to improve the current voice recognition system and direct the design of future systems. Infotainment system logs, audio recordings of the voice interactions, their transcriptions and CAN bus data were identified to be rich sources of data to analyze voice recognition usage. Infotainment logs help understand how the system interpreted or responded to customer commands and at what confidence level.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Methodology for Engine Gear Rattle and Whine Assessment and Noise Simulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0799
In this paper, a CAE methodology based on a multiphysics approach for engine gear noise evaluation is reviewed. The method comprises the results and outputs from several different analytical domains to perform the noise risk assessment. The assessment includes the source-path analysis of the gear-induced rattling and whining noise. The vibration data from the exterior surface of the engine is extended through acoustic analysis to perform the engine noise simulation and to identify acoustic hot spots contributing to the noise. The study includes simulations under different engine loading conditions with results presented in both time and frequency domains. Various sensitivity analyses involving different gear geometries and micro-geometries are investigated as well. Finally, the simulation results from three different engines are compared vis-a-vis.
Technical Paper

Vane Pump Whining Noise Reduction by Vane Spacing Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-0841
A traditional vane type oil pump used inside the engines and the transmissions has equal angles or spacing between the vanes. The equal spacing intensifies pressure fluctuations generated within the pump leading to narrowband pressure spikes at the pump main order and its harmonics. Unequal spacing, however, can relax the severity of the spikes by breaking down the narrowband peaks and distributing them over a larger frequency range. Optimization of the angles within the pump design constraint can maximize the benefit of unequal spacing in reducing the pressure pulsations for a lower risk of engine or transmission whine. The scope of this paper is around the optimization process for vane spacing and different objective functions which can be used to obtain optimized solutions. The simulation results for optimized spacing based on two different objective functions for 7, 8 and 9 vanes are presented. The design constraints for the optimization are discussed as well.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Gate Driver with Variable Turn On and Turn Off Speeds

2019-04-02
2019-01-0608
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) are widely used for the vehicle traction inverter. Switching characteristics of these devices contribute to the inverter total loss and inverter efficiency is affected by the energy loss during each switching event. Traditional gate driver circuits are usually designed to meet the worst-case scenario and result is high switching loss of the IGBTs. Gate driver turn on and turn off resistances are selected accordingly for the worst-case scenario and their purpose is to protect the device from overshoot voltage that can cause the avalanche breakdown of the device. The gate charge and discharge circuit is usually composed of one or two resistors and the loss during turn-on and turn-off time is not optimized for all of the vehicle-operating conditions. Since microprocessor (μP) monitors the dc-bus voltage, output current and torque command, it can also determine if the device switching speed needs to be changed under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling Static Load Distribution and Friction of Ball Bearings and BNAs: Towards Understanding the “Stick-Slip” of Rack EPAS

2019-04-02
2019-01-1240
Electric power assisted steering (EPAS) systems are widely adopted in modern vehicles to reduce the steering effort of drivers. In rack EPAS, assist torque is applied by a motor and transmitted through two key mechanical components: ball bearing and ball nut assembly (BNA) to turn the front wheels. Large combined load and manufacturing errors not only make it hard to accurately calculate the load distribution in the ball bearing and BNA for the purpose of sizing, but also make the friction behavior of EPAS gear complicated. Rack EPAS gear is well known to suffer from “stick-slip” (i.e., sticky feel sensed by the driver), which affects the user experience. “Stick-slip” is an extreme case of friction variation mainly coming from ball bearing and BNA. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in commercial software like ANSYS is usually conducted to study the load distribution and friction of ball bearing and BNA.
Journal Article

Smart DPF Regenerations - A Case Study of a Connected Powertrain Function

2019-04-02
2019-01-0316
The availability of connectivity and autonomy enabled resources, within the automotive sector, has primarily been considered for driver assist technologies and for extending the levels of vehicle autonomy. It is not a stretch to imagine that the additional information, available from connectivity and autonomy, may also be useful in further improving powertrain functions. Critical powertrain subsystems that must operate with limited or uncertain knowledge of their environment stand to benefit from such new information sources. Unfortunately, the adoption of this new information resource has been slow within the powertrain community and has typically been limited to the obvious problem choices such as battery charge management for electric vehicles and efforts related to fuel economy benefits from adaptive/coordinated cruise control. In this paper we discuss the application of connectivity resources in the management of an aftertreatment sub-system, the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Impacts of WLTP Test Procedure on Fuel Consumption Estimation of Common Electrified Powertrains

2019-04-02
2019-01-0306
The new European test procedure, called the worldwide harmonized light vehicle test procedure (WLTP), deviates in some details from the current NEDC-based test which will have an impact on the determination of the official EU fuel consumption values for the new vehicles. The adaptation to the WLTP faces automakers with new challenges for meeting the stringent EU fuel consumption and CO2 emissions standards. This paper investigates the main changes that the new test implies to a mid-size sedan electrified vehicle design and quantifies their impact on the vehicles fuel economy. Three common electrified powertrain architectures including series, parallel P2, and powersplit are studied. A Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) optimization-based energy management control strategy is developed to evaluate the energy consumption of the electrified vehicles in both charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes.
Technical Paper

Detection of Presence and Posture of Vehicle Occupants Using a Capacitance Sensing Mat

2019-04-02
2019-01-1232
Capacitance sensing is the technology that detects the presence of nearby objects by measuring the change in capacitance. A change in capacitance is triggered either by a change in dielectric constant, area of overlap or distance of separation between the electrodes of the capacitor. It is a technology that finds wide use in applications such as touch screens, proximity sensing etc. Drawing motivation from such applications, this paper investigates how capacitive sensing can be employed to detect the presence and posture of occupants inside vehicles. Compared to existing solutions, the proposed approach is low-cost, easy to deploy and highly efficient. The sensing system consists of a capacitance-sensing mat that is embedded with copper foils and an associated sensing circuitry. Inside the mat the foils are arranged in rows and columns to form several touch-nodes across the surface of the mat.
Technical Paper

Design of a SiC Based Variable Voltage Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0605
Variable Voltage Converter (VVC) is adopted in Power-Split structure of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to optimize the Electric-Drive (e-Drive) system performance. With the wider availability of Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor for automotive applications, there are new opportunities to further optimize and improve performance of VVC, e.g. lower power loss, smaller size, and lighter weight, comparing to use traditional Silicon (Si) IGBT and diode. In this paper, a SiC based VVC is designed, prototyped, and evaluated. In order to maximize the benefits of SiC power devices in VVC application, each key component is carefully designed and selected, including SiC power module, power capacitor, and power inductor. The characterization and evaluation results demonstrate the benefits of advanced SiC devices in VVC design optimization, and such benefits quantified in this paper.
Technical Paper

Effective Suppression of Surge Instabilities in Turbocharger Compression Systems through a Close-Coupled Compressor Inlet Restriction

2018-09-10
2018-01-1714
The current work demonstrates effective suppression of compression system surge instabilities by installing a variable cross-sectional flow area restriction within the inlet duct of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor operating on a bench-top facility. This restriction couples with the compressor, similar to stages in a multi-stage turbomachine, where the effective pressure ratio is the product of those for the restriction and compressor. During experiments at constant compressor rotational speed, the compressor is stable over the negatively sloped portion of the pressure ratio vs. flow rate characteristics, so the restriction is eliminated within this operating region to preserve compressor performance. At low flow rates, the slope of the compressor alone characteristics reaches a positive value, and the unrestricted compression system enters mild surge. Further reduction of flow rate with the unrestricted compressor inlet results in a sudden transition to deep surge instabilities.
Technical Paper

Closures weatherstrips with variable cross sections

2018-09-03
2018-36-0152
Closures systems performance is a trade-off between NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) and DCE (Door Closing Efforts) requirements. Dynamic sealing performance and sheet metal rigidity are the key contributors for a stable system. The seals actuate like a spring on the system. Higher seal load is good for NVH performance, adding more dumping to the system, but it will negatively affect DCE, as it will demand additional energy to close the system. Nominal seal load must be defined to achieve a balance between these attributes. This study is about dynamic sealing profiles with variable seal load, which provides tunable solutions to address the trade-off between NVH and DCE on the side doors or rear closures. Dynamic sealing weatherstrips are made of sponge EPDM extruded profiles with a specified load, defined by its CLD (Compression Load Deflection), which is given by the cross section design.
Technical Paper

One piece hot formed AB ring reinforcement

2018-09-03
2018-36-0022
The usage of Boron steel in the South American automotive industry has been increasing in recent years. Considering its high hardening properties, sheet metal parts can only be manufactured using a hot forming process, as compared to a conventional cold forming process; however, the hot stamping process offers the advantage to stamp a part in a single die vs. multiple dies using a regular cold stamping process. The main objective is to present the advantages of constructing the whole AB ring reinforcement out of Boron steel and made out of a single die, and no welding among the A pillar reinforcement, B Pillar reinforcement and rocker panel. This type of design has helped to achieve crash safety performance goals, enhance the structural characteristics of joints, improve dimensional control, reduce the number of welds, manage BIW overall weight and improve torsion rigidity.
Technical Paper

Coating on striker: Robust corrosion protection with low cost

2018-09-03
2018-36-0044
Corrosion is a known phenomenon that the automotive industry needs to pay attention, once that several issues faced in the field had it as root cause. Indisputably is important spend resources in usage of proper materials and process based on chemical properties, minimum thickness, adhesion conditions, wear resistance, finish applicators, etc. to cover the parts in order to ensure robust protection against this phenomena; however, the key point is to optimize these resources once that the customer will buy/use the vehicle (not the part singly); so if develop a proper design in system level providing proper protection of the parts, despite of the part does not have the most efficient protection level, the customers will have a satisfactory experience during vehicle usage.
Technical Paper

A NVH CAE approach performed on a vehicle closures pumping issue

2018-09-03
2018-36-0287
The use of finite element modeling (FEM) tools is part of the most of the current product development projects of the automotive industry companies, replacing an important part of the physical tests with lower costs, higher speed and with increasing accuracy by each day. In addition to this, computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools can be either used after the product is released, at any moment of the product life, in many different situation as a new feature release, to validate a more cost-efficient design proposal or to help on solving some manufacturing problem or even a vehicular field issue. Different from the phase where the product is still under development, when standard virtual test procedures are performed in order to validate the vehicle project, in this case, where engineers expertise plays a very important role, before to proceed with any standard test it is fundamental to understand the physics of the phenomena that is causing the unexpected behavior.
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