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Technical Paper

A CAE Study on Side Doors Inner Panel Deflection under Glass Stall Up Forces

2017-11-07
2017-36-0205
Not only well-functioning, but also the way operating everyday items "feel", gauges costumer perception of an automobile robustness. To prevent costumer dissatisfaction with door trim panel movement when operating power windows, deflections must be kept small. Deflections of inner panel are seen through trim panel and are responsible for giving a flimsy idea of the door. In this paper, inner panel movement for a fully stamped door in full glass stall up position is analyzed. Through CAE analyses, inner panel behavior was compared, considering different types of reinforcement for belt region.
Technical Paper

Control of Gear Ratio and Slip in Continuously Variable Transmissions: A Model Predictive Control Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1104
The efficiency of power transmission through a Van Doorne type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) can be improved by allowing a small amount of relative slip between the engine and driveline side pulleys. However, excessive slip must be avoided to prevent transmission wear and damage. To enable fuel economy improvements without compromising drivability, a CVT control system must ensure accurate tracking of the gear ratio set-point while satisfying pointwise-in-time constraints on the slip, enforcing limits on the pulley forces, and counteracting driveline side and engine side disturbances. In this paper, the CVT control problem is approached from the perspective of Model Predictive Control (MPC). To develop an MPC controller, a low order nonlinear model of the CVT is established. This model is linearized at a selected operating point, and the resulting linear model is extended with extra states to ensure zero steady-state error when tracking constant set-points.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Occupancy Detection and Occupant Counting System Using Motion Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-1442
This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Robust Observer Roll Rate Sensor Fault Detection

2017-03-28
2017-01-1572
The detection and diagnosis of sensor faults in real-time is necessary for satisfactory performance of vehicle Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) systems. This paper presents an observer designed to detect faults of a roll rate sensor that is robust to model uncertainties and disturbances. A reference vehicle roll angle estimate, independent of roll-rate sensor measurement, is formed from available ESC inertial sensor measurements. Residuals are generated by comparing the reference roll angle and roll rate, with the observer outputs. Stopping rules based on the current state of the vehicle and the magnitude of the residuals are then used to determine if a sensor fault is present. The system’s low order allows for efficient implementation in real-time on a fixed-point microprocessor. Modification of the roll rate sensor signal during in vehicle experiments shows the algorithm’s ability to detect faults.
Technical Paper

The Application of a One-Way Coupled Aerodynamic and Multi-Body Dynamics Simulation Process to Predict Vehicle Response during a Severe Crosswind Event

2017-03-28
2017-01-1515
Industry trends towards lighter, more aerodynamically efficient road vehicles have the potential to degrade a vehicle’s response to crosswinds. In this paper, a methodology is outlined that indirectly couples a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the vehicle’s aerodynamic characteristics with a multi-body dynamics simulation (MBD) to determine yaw, roll and pitch response characteristics during a severe crosswind event. This one-way coupling approach mimics physical test conditions outlined in open loop test procedure ISO 12021:2010 that forms part of the vehicle sign-off criterion at Ford Motor Company. The methodology uses an overset mesh CFD method to drive the vehicle through a prescribed crosswind event, providing unfiltered predictions of vehicle force and moment responses that are used as applied forces in the MBD model. The method does not account for changes in vehicle attitude due to applied aerodynamic forces and moments.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Tire Health Monitoring System Using On-board Motion Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-1626
This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Yaw Stability Control System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1556
This paper presents an advanced yaw stability control system that uses a sensor set including an inertial measurement unit to sense the 6 degrees-of-freedom motions of a vehicle. The full degree of the inertial measurement unit improves and enhances the vehicle motion state estimation over the one in the traditional electronic stability controls. The addition of vehicle state estimation leads to the performance refinement of vehicle stability control that can improve performance in certain situations. The paper provides both detailed system description and test results showing the effectiveness of the system.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Based Trailer Hitch Angle Estimation for Trailer Backup Assist

2017-03-28
2017-01-0027
In the current Ford Pro-Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, trailer hitch angle is determined utilizing the reverse camera of the vehicle. In addition to being sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting conditions and occlusion, the vision-based approach is difficult to be applied to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA. Based on the kinematic model of the vehicle-trailer, an instantaneous hitch angle is first derived by utilizing vehicle yaw rate, trailer yaw rate, vehicle velocity and vehicle/trailer parameters provided by the TBA system. Due to signal errors and parameter uncertainties, this instantaneous hitch angle may be noisy, especially at lower vehicle speed.
Journal Article

Effect of Force Vectoring Spring implementation into a Twistbeam Rear Suspension

2017-03-28
2017-01-1573
A twistbeam is a very cost effective rear suspension architecture which has drawbacks compared to an independent rear suspension. One drawback is the lateral compliance during cornering compromising the handling of the vehicle. Common solutions to correct this issue are complex reinforcements or an additional Watts linkage. However, these solutions drive high cost and additional weight. The challenge was to find a solution which reduces the gap to the functional performance of a multilink rear suspension. Due to the bush attachment, the set-up of a twistbeam is always a compromise between ride comfort and vehicle dynamics. The more comfort is desired the softer the bushings will be, resulting in less agility and slower vehicle response. The target was to determine a way to separate ride comfort and dynamic agility. A solution was found using a special set of springs working as a dynamic anti-compliance mechanism.
Technical Paper

EPAS System Tests Using Rack Force Models

2016-04-05
2016-01-1544
Evaluation of electric steering (EPAS) system performance using vehicle specific load conditions is important for steering system design validation and vehicle steering performance tuning. Using real-time vehicle dynamics mathematical models is one approach for generating steering loads in steering hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. However achieving a good correlation of simplified mathematical models with real vehicle dynamics is a challenge. Using rack force models from measured steering tie rod forces or from simulations using a high-fidelity vehicle dynamics model is an effective data-driven modelling method for testing EPAS systems under vehicle specific load conditions. Rack force models are identified from physical measurements or validated vehicle simulations of selected steering test maneuvers. The rack force models have been applied in steering system performance evaluation, benchmarking, and steering model validation.
Journal Article

Effect of Humidity on the Very High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Cast Aluminum Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0371
In this paper, fatigue tests on a cast aluminum alloy (AS7GU-T64) were performed under different frequencies and humidity levels. Tests conducted under conventional frequency in laboratory air have been compared to tests conducted under ultrasonic frequency in dry air, saturated humidity and in distilled water. It was observed that the highest and lowest fatigue lives correspond to ultrasonic fatigue tests in dry air and in distilled water, respectively. Unlike specimens tested at conventional frequency, all of the specimens tested at ultrasonic frequency presented a large amount of slip facets on the fatigue crack propagation fracture surface.
Journal Article

Technical Analysis of a Proposed Shock Absorber Design Standard

2016-04-05
2016-01-1543
One important part of the vehicle design process is suspension design and tuning. This is typically performed by design engineers, experienced expert evaluators, and assistance from vehicle dynamics engineers and their computer simulation tools. Automotive suspensions have two primary functions: passenger and cargo isolation and vehicle control. Suspension design, kinematics, compliance, and damping, play a key role in those primary functions and impact a vehicles ride, handling, steering, and braking dynamics. The development and tuning of a vehicle kinematics, compliance, and damping characteristic is done by expert evaluators who perform a variety of on road evaluations under different loading configurations and on a variety of road surfaces. This “tuning” is done with a focus on meeting certain target characteristics for ride, handling, and steering One part of this process is the development and tuning of the damping characteristics of the shock absorbers.
Book

The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) Project

2015-06-05
The desire for greater fuel efficiency and reduced emissions have accelerated a shift from traditional materials to design solutions that more closely match materials and their properties with key applications. The Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) Project presents cutting edge engineering that meets future challenges in a concept vehicle with weight and life-cycle assessment savings. These results significantly contribute to achieving fuel reduction and to meeting future Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) regulations without compromising vehicle performance or occupant safety.
Journal Article

TWC+LNT/SCR Systems for Satisfying Tier 2, Bin 2 Emission Standards on Lean-Burn Gasoline Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1006
A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. It was assumed that the exhaust system would need a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and a third U/B LNT/SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards on the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum LNT/SCR volume needed to satisfy the NOx target. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during rich operation through steam reforming was crucial for satisfying the HC target.
Technical Paper

A Matrix Array Technique for Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

2012-04-16
2012-01-0475
Adhesive bonding technology is playing an increasingly important role in automotive industry. Ultrasonic evaluation of adhesive joints of metal sheets is a challenging problem in Non-Destructive Testing due to the large acoustic impedance mismatch between metal and adhesive, variability in the thickness of metal and adhesive layers, as well as variability in joint geometry. In this paper, we present the results from a matrix array of small flat ultrasonic transducers for evaluation of adhesively bonded joints in both laboratory and production environments. The reverberating waveforms recorded by the array elements are processed to obtain an informative parameter, whose two-dimensional distribution can be presented as a C-scan. Energy of the reflected waveform, normalized with respect to the energy obtained from an area with no adhesive, is a robust parameter for discriminating "adhesive/no-adhesive" regions.
Technical Paper

Active Yaw Control of a Vehicle using a Fuzzy Logic Algorithm

2012-04-16
2012-01-0229
Yaw rate of a vehicle is highly influenced by the lateral forces generated at the tire contact patch to attain the desired lateral acceleration, and/or by external disturbances resulting from factors such as crosswinds, flat tire or, split-μ braking. The presence of the latter and the insufficiency of the former may lead to undesired yaw motion of a vehicle. This paper proposes a steer-by-wire system based on fuzzy logic as yaw-stability controller for a four-wheeled road vehicle with active front steering. The dynamics governing the yaw behavior of the vehicle has been modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The fuzzy controller receives the yaw rate error of the vehicle and the steering signal given by the driver as inputs and generates an additional steering angle as output which provides the corrective yaw moment.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Groan and Grind Noise in Brake Systems

2011-09-18
2011-01-2364
Low frequency brake system noise has been a systemic and ongoing issue for several automakers. The noise is a combined effect of brake and suspension systems working with each other. The noise transmission path is also important. The latest warranty and quality indicators on this has resulted in high degree of dissatisfaction for several vehicles. The customer complaints have been for grind noise, grunt and groan. The team focused on a multi-level integrated approach for this problem. The first step was deep diving and dissecting the customer complaint data. The low frequency noise for grind and groan can be reduced to several contributors. One of the main issues was the movement of pads over the rotor fins resulting in dynamic groan type of noise. It was important to relate this to the customer complaint for grind. In association with that, the grind noise was also caused by in-stop grunt type of noise.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Evaluation of Chimes

2010-10-17
2010-36-0549
The customer perception of vehicle quality and safety is associated to the interior and exterior vehicle touching, feeling and hearing. One of the items related to hearing are the chimes, which are the sounds generated for safety and warning purposes. These sounds are typically transient - harmonic or constant signals, giving to the driver and passenger information that something is not accomplished adequately. As those sounds have different purposes, each one of them has different pitch, level of intensity, duration and shape. This paper presents an objective evaluation of this kind of signal based on psychoacoustic parameters as loudness and sharpness. Besides those parameters, total harmonic distortion and wavelets are considered.
Journal Article

Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Tire Cavity Noise Generation Mechanisms for a Rolling Tire

2009-05-19
2009-01-2104
Tire cavity noise refers to the excitation of the acoustic mode of a tire cavity. The noise exhibits itself as sharp resonance-like peaks with frequencies typically in the range of 190-250Hz. For a rolling tire, the tire contact with the road moves relative to the tire. Furthermore, the load on the tire breaks the circular symmetry of the tire. Consequently, the peak frequency of the cavity noise shows dependence on the tire load and the vehicle speed. There are no models that simultaneously take these two factors into consideration. In this paper, we propose an analytical model and present experimental verifications of predictions on the noise peak frequency and its dependence on the tire load and vehicle speed. A wireless experimental measurement system is also presented which enables the measurement of tire cavity frequency for both non-rolling and rolling conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Flare Component Specifications on the Sealing of Double Inverted Flare Brake Tube Joints

2009-04-20
2009-01-1029
While SAE double inverted flares have been in use for decades, leaking joints continue to be a problem for OEMs in production settings consuming time and energy to detect and correct them before releasing vehicles from the assembly plant. It should be noted that this issue is limited to first-time vehicle assembly; once a flared brake tube joint is sealed at the assembly plant it remains sealed during normal customer usage. From their inception through the late 1980s most brake tubes have been 3/16″ nominal diameter. With the advent of higher flow requirements of Traction Control and Yaw/Stability control systems, larger tubes of 1/4″ and 5/16″ size have also been introduced. While it was known that the first-time sealing capability of the 3/16″ joint was not 100%, leakers were generally containable in the production environment and the joint was regarded as robust.
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