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Journal Article

Tier 2 Test Fuel Impact to Tier 3 Aftertreatment Systems and Calibration Countermeasures

2018-04-03
2018-01-0941
During the course of emissions and fuel economy (FE) testing, vehicles that are calibrated to meet Tier 3 emissions requirements currently must demonstrate compliance on Tier 3 E10 fuel while maintaining emissions capability with Tier 2 E0 fuel used for FE label determination. Tier 3 emissions regulations prescribe lower sulfur E10 gasoline blends for the U.S. market. Tier 3 emissions test fuels specified by EPA are required to contain 9.54 volume % ethanol and 8-11 ppm sulfur content. EPA Tier 2 E0 test fuel has no ethanol and has nominal 30 ppm sulfur content. Under Tier 3 rules, Tier 2 E0 test fuel is still used to determine FE. Tier 3 calibrations can have difficulty meeting low Tier 3 emissions targets while testing with Tier 2 E0 fuel. Research has revealed that the primary cause of the high emissions is deactivation of the aftertreatment system due to sulfur accumulation on the catalysts.
Journal Article

Benefits of Pd Doped Zeolites for Cold Start HC/NOx Emission Reductions for Gasoline and E85 Fueled Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0948
In the development of HC traps (HCT) for reducing vehicle cold start hydrocarbon (HC)/nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, zeolite-based adsorbent materials were studied as key components for the capture and release of the main gasoline-type HC/NOx species in the vehicle exhaust gas. Typical zeolite materials capture and release certain HC and NOx species at low temperatures (<200°C), which is lower than the light-off temperature of a typical three-way catalyst (TWC) (≥250°C). Therefore, a zeolite alone is not effective in enhancing cold start HC/NOx emission control. We have found that a small amount of Pd (<0.5 wt%) dispersed in the zeolite (i.e., BEA) can significantly increase the conversion efficiency of certain HC/NOx species by increasing their release temperature. Pd was also found to modify the adsorption process from pure physisorption to chemisorption and may have played a role in the transformation of the adsorbed HCs to higher molecular weight species.
Journal Article

Passive Hydrocarbon Trap to Enable SULEV-30 Tailpipe Emissions from a Flex-Fuel Vehicle on E85 Fuel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0944
Future LEV-III tailpipe (TP) emission regulations pose an enormous challenge forcing the fleet average of light-duty vehicles produced in the 2025 model year to perform at the super ultralow emission vehicle (SULEV-30) certification levels (versus less than 20% produced today). To achieve SULEV-30, regulated TP emissions of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) hydrocarbons (HCs) and oxygenates plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) must be below a combined 30 mg/mi (18.6 mg/km) standard as measured on the federal emissions certification cycle (FTP-75). However, when flex-fuel vehicles use E85 fuel instead of gasoline, NMOG emissions at cold start are nearly doubled, before the catalytic converter is active. Passive HC traps (HCTs) are a potential solution to reduce TP NMOG emissions. The conventional HCT design was modified by changing the zeolite chemistry so as to improve HC retention coupled with more efficient combustion during the desorption phase.
Technical Paper

Method to Enhance Fuel Cell Powertrain System Robustness by Reducing Cathode Potential during Start-Up Condition

2017-03-28
2017-01-1186
This study investigates a system and a method to enhance fuel cell vehicle robustness during vehicle start/stop cycle by mitigating cathode half-cell potential spikes. Multiple dynamic hydrogen reference electrodes were installed in the fuel cell under test to observe changes of anode and cathode half-cell potentials during simulated system startup and shutdown conditions. Multiple reference electrodes were used to measure localized anode and cathode half-cell potentials in an active area. A 1.4-1.8 V half-cell potential spike at the cathode in the startup condition was observed due to a hydrogen/air boundary formed within the anode flow field. Various system solutions have been studied to contain the cathode half-cell potential spikes, such as purging with inert gas, or inserting a shunt resistor as a shorting component between the anode and the cathode. In this study, a method of connecting an electrical load prior to flowing hydrogen fuel to the cell was tested.
Technical Paper

Alternative to Phthalate Plasticizer for PVC/NBR Formulation Used in Automotive Fuel System with Biodiesel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0482
Phthalates have been extensively used in rubbers formulation as plasticizer additive for PVC and NBR promoting processing parameters or for cost reduction. The most commonly used plasticizer in PVC compounds was di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) currently not recommend due toxicity. DEHP is listed as prohibited to the Global Automotive Declarable Substance List (GADSL). Phthalates alternatives are already available but the compatibility in automotive fuel system with biodiesel was not extensively understood. This aspect is important since plasticizer may migrate and change rubber properties. Tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate (TOTM) and di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHT) were selected in this work as alternative additives to a rubber formulation since is not listed to GADSL and have good potential as plasticizer.
Journal Article

Soy Biodiesel Oxidation at Vehicle Fuel System Temperature: Influence of Aged Fuel on Fresh Fuel Degradation to Simulate Refueling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0809
An experimental study of the effects of partially-oxidized biodiesel fuel on the degradation of fresh fuel was performed. A blend of soybean oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in petroleum diesel fuel (30% v:v biodiesel, B30) was aged under accelerated conditions (90°C with aeration). Aging conditions focused on three different degrees of initial oxidation: 1) reduced oxidation stability (Rancimat induction period, IP); 2) high peroxide values (PV); and 3) high total acid number (TAN). Aged B30 fuel was mixed with fresh B30 fuel at two concentrations (10% and 30% m:m) and degradation of the mixtures at the above aging conditions was monitored for IP, PV, TAN, and FAME composition. Greater content of aged fuel carryover (30% m:m) corresponded to stronger effects. Oxidation stability was most adversely affected by high peroxide concentration (Scenario 2), while peroxide content was most reduced for the high TAN scenario (Scenario 3).
Journal Article

Advancements and Opportunities for On-Board 700 Bar Compressed Hydrogen Tanks in the Progression Towards the Commercialization of Fuel Cell Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1183
Fuel cell vehicles are entering the automotive market with significant potential benefits to reduce harmful greenhouse emissions, facilitate energy security, and increase vehicle efficiency while providing customer expected driving range and fill times when compared to conventional vehicles. One of the challenges for successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles is transitioning the on-board fuel system from liquid gasoline to compressed hydrogen gas. Storing high pressurized hydrogen requires a specialized structural pressure vessel, significantly different in function, size, and construction from a gasoline container. In comparison to a gasoline tank at near ambient pressures, OEMs have aligned to a nominal working pressure of 700 bar for hydrogen tanks in order to achieve the customer expected driving range of 300 miles.
Technical Paper

Methane Number Effect on the Efficiency of a Downsized, Dedicated, High Performance Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Direct Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0776
A fundamental requirement for natural gas (NG) and renewable methane (e.g. bio-methane or power-to-gas methane) as automotive fuel is reliable knock resistance; to enable optimization of dedicated NG engines with high compression ratio and high turbocharger boost (which enables considerable engine downsizing factors). In order to describe the knock resistance of NG, the Methane Number (MN) has been introduced. The lowest MN which generally can be found in any NG is 65, and the vast majority of NG (~ 99.8%) is delivered with a MN above 70. The MN of bio-methane and power-to-gas methane is usually far above 80. Thus, from an automotive point of view any methane fuel should at least provide a minimum Methane Number of 70 at any point of sale. But the European draft standard describing the automotive CNG fuel quality so far proposes a minimum MN limit of 65.
Journal Article

Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2364
Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions.
Journal Article

Well-to-Wheels Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants of Dimethyl Ether from Natural Gas and Renewable Feedstocks in Comparison with Petroleum Gasoline and Diesel in the United States and Europe

2016-10-17
2016-01-2209
Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
Journal Article

Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2293
The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems. Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas.
Journal Article

Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Assessment of Natural Gas Direct Injection compared to Gasoline and Natural Gas Port-Fuel Injection in an Automotive Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0806
Interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel. Steady-state baseline tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped for port-fuel injection of gasoline and natural gas, as well as centrally mounted direct injection of natural gas.
Journal Article

Potential Natural Gas Impact on Cost Efficient Capacity Planning for Automakers and Electricity Generators in a Carbon Constrained World

2015-04-14
2015-01-0466
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets are becoming more stringent for both automakers and electricity generators. With the introduction of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, transportation and electricity generation sectors become connected. This provides an opportunity for both sectors to work together to achieve the cost efficient reduction of CO2 emission. In addition, the abundant natural gas (NG) in USA is drawing increased attention from both policy makers and various industries due to its low cost and low carbon content. NG has the potential to ease the pressure from CO2 emission constraints for both the light duty vehicle (LDV) and the electricity generation sectors while simultaneously reducing their fuel costs. To quantify the benefit of this collaboration, an analytical model is developed to evaluate the total societal cost and CO2 emission for both sectors.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of the Drivability Impacts with Ethanol

2014-09-30
2014-36-0437
This paper presents a study performed in 10 vehicles available in Brazilian market where the drivability with ethanol and gasoline, also referred as gasohol were compared. The motivation for this work came from the constant competition of the automotive industry, where engineers are searching for ways to improve the quality of the products aiming the “best in class” drivability with the best cost efficiency. For the Brazilian market, a further complexity is added to the development and verification process, which is the need to design and verify the controls and calibration considering the two fuels available in the market, the ethanol and the gasoline. In order to determine how the drivability is impacted by the ethanol, the paper presents a study where the drivability data were generated using the objective drivability measurement system AVL-DRIVE™.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends in a Turbocharged DI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1321
Engine dynamometer testing was performed comparing E10, E20, and E30 splash-blended fuels in a Ford 3.5L EcoBoost direct injection (DI) turbocharged engine. The engine was tested with compression ratios (CRs) of 10.0:1 (current production) and 11.9:1. In this engine, E20 (96 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR gave very similar knock performance to E10 (91 RON) fuel at 10:1 CR. Similarly, E30 (101 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR resulted in knock-limited performance equivalent to E20 at 10:1 CR, indicating that E30 could have been run at even higher CR with acceptable knock behavior. The data was used in a vehicle simulation of a 3.5L EcoBoost pickup truck, which showed that the E20 (96 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR offers 5% improvement in U.S. EPA Metro-Highway (M/H) and US06 Highway cycle tank-to-wheels CO₂ emissions over the E10 fuel, with comparable volumetric fuel economy (miles per gallon) and range before refueling.
Journal Article

An Overview of the Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on SI Engine Performance, Fuel Efficiency, and Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1635
This paper provides an overview of the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. The overview is written from the perspective of considering a future ethanol-gasoline blend for use in vehicles that have been designed to accommodate such a fuel. Therefore discussion of the effects of ethanol-gasoline blends on older legacy vehicles is not included. As background, highlights of future emissions regulations are discussed. The effects on fuel properties of blending ethanol and gasoline are described. The substantial increase in knock resistance and full load performance associated with the addition of ethanol to gasoline is illustrated with example data. Aspects of fuel efficiency enabled by increased ethanol content are reviewed, including downsizing and downspeeding opportunities, increased compression ratio, fundamental effects associated with ethanol combustion, and reduced enrichment requirement at high speed/high load conditions.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1695
Two oxygenated fuels were evaluated on a single-cylinder diesel engine and compared to three hydrocarbon diesel fuels. The oxygenated fuels included canola biodiesel (canola methyl esters, CME) and CME blended with dibutyl succinate (DBS), both of which are or have the potential to be bio-derived. DBS was added to improve the cold flow properties, but also reduced the cetane number and net heating value of the resulting blend. A 60-40 blend of the two (60% vol CME and 40% vol DBS) provided desirable cold flow benefits while staying above the U.S. minimum cetane number requirement. Contrary to prior vehicle test results and numerous literature reports, single-cylinder engine testing of both CME and the 60-40 blend showed no statistically discernable change in NOx emissions relative to diesel fuel, but only when constant intake oxygen was maintained.
Journal Article

Effect of Heat of Vaporization, Chemical Octane, and Sensitivity on Knock Limit for Ethanol - Gasoline Blends

2012-04-16
2012-01-1277
Ethanol and other high heat of vaporization (HoV) fuels result in substantial cooling of the fresh charge, especially in direct injection (DI) engines. The effect of charge cooling combined with the inherent high chemical octane of ethanol make it a very knock resistant fuel. Currently, the knock resistance of a fuel is characterized by the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON). However, the RON and MON tests use carburetion for fuel metering and thus likely do not replicate the effect of charge cooling for DI engines. The operating conditions of the RON and MON tests also do not replicate the very retarded combustion phasing encountered with modern boosted DI engines operating at low-speed high-load. In this study, the knock resistance of a matrix of ethanol-gasoline blends was determined in a state-of-the-art single cylinder engine equipped with three separate fuel systems: upstream, pre-vaporized fuel injection (UFI); port fuel injection (PFI); and DI.
Technical Paper

Octane Numbers of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends: Measurements and Novel Estimation Method from Molar Composition

2012-04-16
2012-01-1274
Ethanol has a high octane rating and can be added to gasoline to produce high octane fuel blends. Understanding the octane increase with ethanol blending is of great fundamental and practical importance. Potential issues with fuel flow rate and fuel vaporization have led to questions of the accuracy of octane measurements for ethanol-gasoline blends with moderate to high ethanol content (e.g., E20-E85) using the Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR™) engine. The nonlinearity of octane ratings with volumetric ethanol content makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of such measurements. In the present study, Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) were measured for a matrix of ethanol-gasoline blends spanning a wide range of ethanol content (E0, E10, E20, E30, E50, E75) in a set of gasoline blendstocks spanning a range of RON values (82, 88, 92, and 95). Octane ratings for neat ethanol, denatured ethanol, and hydrous ethanol were also measured.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Performance Evaluation on E0 and E85 Fuels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0904
The differences in hydrocarbons (HCs) emitted by gasoline (E0) and ethanol (EtOH) blend fuels from flex-fuel capable engines can lead to differences in the performance of aftertreatment devices. Vehicle emission results have shown either better performance on E0 compared to E85 or vice versa, dependent on the vehicle calibration. In order to separate the impact of the vehicle and the catalyst, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate performance on a pulse-flame (pulsator) reactor and compare reactivity towards E0 and E85 (85% EtOH-15% E0) exhaust. The catalysts evaluated were substrate-only, washcoat-only and fully formulated catalysts that had been aged either on a pulsator reactor or dynamometer engine. Catalyst performance was evaluated with light-off tests utilizing both slow and fast temperature ramp rates.
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