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Journal Article

Spray Pattern Optimization for the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost Engine

A systematic methodology has been employed to develop the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system, with focus on the optimization of the combustion system including injector spray pattern, intake port design, piston geometry, cylinder head geometry. The development methodology was led by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modeling together with a testing program that uses optical, single-cylinder, and multi-cylinder engines. The current study shows the effect of several spray patterns on air-fuel mixing, in-cylinder flow development, surface wetting, and turbulence intensity. A few sets of injector spray patterns are studied; some that have a wide total cone angle, some that have a narrow cone angle and a couple of optimized injector spray patterns. The effect of the spray pattern at part load, full load and cold start operation was investigated and the methodology for choosing an optimized injector is presented.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Upfront Optimization of the In-Cylinder Flow of the 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

This paper presents part of the analytical work performed for the development and optimization of the 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system from Ford Motor Company. The 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system is a direct injected twin turbocharged combustion system employing side-mounted multi-hole injectors. Upfront 3D CFD, employing a Ford proprietary KIVA-based code, was extensively used in the combustion system development and optimization phases. This paper presents the effect of intake port design with various levels of tumble motion on the combustion system characteristics. A high tumble intake port design enforces a well-organized stable motion that results in higher turbulence intensity in the cylinder that in turn leads to faster burn rates, a more stable combustion and less fuel enrichment requirement at full load.
Journal Article

Development and Optimization of the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Combustion System

Recently, Ford Motor Company announced the introduction of EcoBoost engines in its Ford, Lincoln and Mercury vehicles as an affordable fuel-saving option to millions of its customers. The EcoBoost engine is planned to start production in June of 2009 in the Lincoln MKS. The EcoBoost engine integrates direct fuel injection with turbocharging to significantly improve fuel economy via engine downsizing. An application of this technology bundle into a 3.5L V6 engine delivers up to 12% better drive cycle fuel economy and 15% lower emissions with comparable torque and power as a 5.4L V8 PFI engine. Combustion system performance is key to the success of the EcoBoost engine. A systematic methodology has been employed to develop the EcoBoost engine combustion system.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of a Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC) System

This paper describes the CFD modeling work conducted for the development and research of a Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC) system that demonstrated superior fuel economy benefits. The Ford in-house CFD code and simulation methodology were employed. In the VISC concept a vortex forms on the outside of the wide cone angle spray and transports fuel vapor from the spray to the spark plug gap. A spray model for an outward-opening pintle injector used in the engine was developed, tested, and implemented in the code. Modeling proved to be effective for design optimization and analysis. The CFD simulations revealed important physical phenomena associated with the spray-guided combustion system mixing preparation.
Technical Paper

Development and Analysis of a Spray-Guided DISI Combustion System Concept

An innovative stratified-charge DISI combustion concept has been developed using a mixture formation method referred to as Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC). This paper describes the combustion system concept and an initial assessment of it, performed on a single-cylinder test engine and through CFD modeling. This VISC concept utilizes the vortex naturally formed on the outside of a wide spray cone that is enhanced by bulk gas flow control and piston crown design. This vortex transports fuel vapor from the spray cone to the spark gap. This system allows a late injection timing and produces a well-confined mixture, which together provide an improved compromise between combustion phasing and combustion efficiency over typical wall-guided systems. Testing results indicate an 18% fuel consumption reduction, compared with a baseline PFI engine, over a drive cycle (neglecting cold start and transient effects).