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Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Speed on Spray Behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” Gasoline Injector

2018-04-03
2018-01-0305
Non-reacting spray behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” gasoline fuel injector were investigated at flash and non-flash boiling conditions in an optically accessible single cylinder engine and a constant volume spray chamber. High-speed Mie-scattering imaging was used to determine transient liquid-phase spray penetration distances and observe general spray behaviors. The standardized “G2” and “G3” test conditions recommended by the Engine Combustion Network were matched in this work and the fuel was pure iso-octane. Results from the constant volume chamber represented the zero (stationary piston) engine speed condition and single cylinder engine speeds ranged from 300 to 2,000 RPM. As expected, the present results indicated the general spray behaviors differed significantly between the spray chamber and engine. The differences must be thoughtfully considered when applying spray chamber results to guide spray model development for engine applications.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Journal Article

An Integrated Model of Energy Transport in a Reciprocating, Lean Burn, Spark Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1659
This paper presents a combined experimental and numerical method for analysing energy flows within a spark ignition engine. Engine dynamometer data is combined with physical models of in-cylinder convection and the engine's thermal impedances, allowing closure of the First Law of Thermodynamics over the entire engine system. In contrast to almost all previous works, the coolant and metal temperatures are not assumed constant, but rather are outputs from this approach. This method is therefore expected to be most useful for lean burn engines, whose temperatures should depart most from normal experience. As an example of this method, the effects of normalised air-fuel ratio (λ), compression ratio and combustion chamber geometry are examined using a hydrogen-fueled engine operating from λ = 1.5 to λ = 6. This shows large variations in the in-cylinder wall temperatures and heat transfer with respect to λ.
Journal Article

Bio-Ketones: Autoignition Characteristics and Their Potential as Fuels for HCCI Engines

2013-10-14
2013-01-2627
This paper studies autoignition characteristics and HCCI engine combustion of ketone fuels, which are important constituents of recently discovered fungi-derived biofuels. Two ketone compounds, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone (DMPN) and cyclopentanone (CPN), are systematically investigated in the Sandia HCCI engine, and the results are compared with conventional gasoline and neat ethanol. It is found that CPN has the lowest autoignition reactivity of all the biofuels and gasoline blends tested in this HCCI engine. The combustion timing of CPN is also the most sensitive to intake-temperature (Tin) variations, and it is almost insensitive to intake-pressure (Pin) variations. These characteristics and the overall HCCI performance of CPN are similar to those of ethanol. In contrast, DMPN shows multi-faceted autoignition characteristics. On the one hand, DMPN has strong temperature-sensitivity, even at boosted Pin, which is similar to the low-reactivity ethanol and CPN.
Journal Article

A Comparative Study of a Spark Ignition Engine Running on Hydrogen, Synthesis Gas and Natural Gas

2013-04-08
2013-01-0229
This paper presents an experimental, numerical and theoretical study of the performance of the same spark ignition engine running on four different gaseous fuels: hydrogen, two synthesis gases and natural gas. Measurements of the brake thermal efficiency, the combustion variability, the engine out emissions and the indicated, pumping and friction mean effective pressures are first presented, with particular interest placed on the lean burn performance. Combustion analysis is then undertaken, with the crank angle resolved in-cylinder turbulence and the flame propagation plotted on the so-called ‘Bradley diagram’ for turbulent premixed combustion. The loci of the combustion events on the Bradley diagram are then used to explain the observed, relative performance of the engine running on these four fuels.
Technical Paper

Lean Burn Performance of a Natural Gas Fuelled, Port Injected, Spark Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0822
This paper presents a study of the performance of a lean burn, natural gas-fuelled, naturally aspirated, spark ignition engine for an E class vehicle. Engine performance and exhaust emissions (NO, CO, and UHC) data are first discussed. An energy balance of the engine operating at different loads and air-fuel ratios is then presented, and used to explain why engine efficiency varies with air-fuel ratio. Finally, the hot start drive cycle CO2e (CO2 equivalent) emissions are estimated for a vehicle with this engine. This shows a potential for significant reduction in vehicle greenhouse gas emissions compared to an equivalent gasoline-fuelled vehicle.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Port Fuel Injected, Spark Ignition Engine Optimised for Hydrogen Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0654
This paper presents a study of the performance of a 6-cylinder, spark-ignited, port-fuel-injected, production engine modified for hydrogen fueling. The engine modifications include turbo-charging, multiple fuel injectors per port and charge-dilution control techniques. Pumping losses are reduced through ultra-lean burn and throttle-less operation alongside high charge dilution ratio control achieved by twin independent variable cam timing without external EGR. Lean-burn combustion, engine-out emissions and brake thermal efficiency results are examined in detail. In particular, low NO emissions and brake thermal efficiencies near 38% are observed experimentally at the same operating conditions. The former is explained in terms of the usual thermal NOx pathway. Usage of throttle position, injection timings and cam timings for avoiding preignition and knock over the entire engine map are also discussed.
Journal Article

Development of a Direct Injection High Efficiency Liquid Phase LPG Spark Ignition Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1881
Direct Injection (DI) is believed to be one of the key strategies for maximizing the thermal efficiency of Spark Ignition (SI) engines and meet the ever-tightening emissions regulations. This paper explores the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) liquid phase fuel in a 1.5 liter SI four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder, and centrally located DI injector. The DI injector is a high pressure, fast actuating injector enabling precise multiple injections of the finely atomized fuel sprays. With DI technology, the injection timing can be set to avoid fuel bypassing the engine during valve overlap into the exhaust system prior to combustion. The fuel vaporization associated with DI reduces combustion chamber and charge temperatures, thereby reducing the tendency for knocking. Fuel atomization quality supports an efficient combustion process.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Charge Composition of SI Engine Lean Limits

2009-04-20
2009-01-0929
In this paper the experimental performance of the lean limits is examined for two different types of engines the first a dedicated LPG high compression ratio 2-valve per cylinder engine (Ford of Australia MY 2001 AU Falcon) and the second a gasoline moderate compression 4-valve per cylinder variant of the same engine (Ford of Australia MY 2006 BF Falcon). The in-cylinder composition at the lean limit over a range of steady state operating conditions is estimated using a quasi-dimensional model. This makes it possible to take into account the effects of both residual fraction and fresh charge diluents (EGR and excess air) that allow the exploration of a modeled lean limit performance [1, 2]. The results are compared to the predictions from a model for combustion variability applied to the quasi-dimensional model operating in optimization mode.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Pfi and Di Superbike Engines

2008-12-02
2008-01-2943
Gasoline Direct Injection (DI) is a technique that was successful in motor sports several decades ago and is now relatively popular in passenger car applications only. DI gasoline fuel injectors have been recently improved considerably, with much higher fuel flow rates and much finer atomization enabled by the advances in fuel pressure and needle actuation. These improved injector performance and the general interest in reducing fuel consumption also in motor sports have made this option interesting again. This paper compares Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and DI of gasoline fuel in a high performance, four cylinder spark ignition engine for super bike racing. Computations are performed with a code for gas exchange, heat transfer and combustion, simulating turbulent combustion and knock.
Technical Paper

Changes to Fim-Motogp Rules to Reduce Costs and Make Racing More Directly Relevant to Road Motorcycle Development

2008-12-02
2008-01-2957
The specific power densities and therefore the level of sophistication and costs of FIM-MOTOGP engines 800 cm3 in capacity have reached levels similar to those of the traditionally much more expensive FIA-Formula One engines and some racing developments have no application at all in the development of production bikes. The aim of the paper is therefore to review FIM-MOTOGP engine rules and make recommendations that could reduce costs and make racing more directly relevant to the development of production bikes while enhancing the significant interest in technical innovation by the sports' fans.
Technical Paper

Top Land Crevice and Piston Deflection Effects on Combustion in a High Speed Rotary Valve Engine

2008-12-02
2008-01-3005
The Bishop Rotary Valve (BRV) has the opportunity for greater breathing capacity than conventional poppet valve engines. However the combustion chamber shape is different from conventional engine with no opportunity for a central spark plug. This paper reports the development of a combustion analysis and design model using KIVA-3V code to locate the ignition centers and to perform sensitivity analysis to several design variables. Central to the use of the model was the tuning of the laminar Arrhenius model constants to match the experimental pressure data over the speed range 13000-20000 rpm. Piston ring crevices lands and valve crevices is shown to be an important development area and connecting rod piston stretch has also been accommodated in the modeling. For the proposed comparison, a conventional 4 valve per cylinder poppet valve engine of nearly equal IMEP has been simulated with GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Engine Gas Exchange, Combustion and Heat Transfer during Warm-Up

2008-06-23
2008-01-1653
This paper presents experimental and computational results obtained on an in line, six cylinder, naturally aspirated, gasoline engine. Steady state measurements were first collected for a wide range of cam and spark timings versus throttle position and engine speed at part and full load. Simulations were performed by using an engine thermo-fluid model. The model was validated with measured steady state air and fuel flow rates and indicated and brake mean effective pressures. The model provides satisfactory accuracy and demonstrates the ability of the approach to produce fairly accurate steady state maps of BMEP and BSFC. However, results show that three major areas still need development especially at low loads, namely combustion, heat transfer and friction modeling, impacting respectively on IMEP and FMEP computations. Satisfactory measurement of small IMEP and derivation of FMEP at low loads is also a major issue.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Effects on Performance, Efficiency, Emissions and Combustion in a Carbureted and PFI Small Engine

2007-08-05
2007-01-3623
This paper compares the performance, efficiency, emissions and combustion parameters of a prototype two cylinder 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) modes with compression ratio (CR) variations. Experiments were completed using 98-RON pump gasoline with modes defined by alterations to the induction system, which included carburetion and port fuel injection (PFI). The results from this paper provide some insight into the CR effects for small NA spark ignition (SI) engines. This information provides future direction for the development of smaller engines as engine downsizing grows in popularity due to rising oil prices and recent carbon dioxide (CO2) emission regulations. Results are displayed in the engine speed, manifold absolute pressure (MAP) and CR domains, with engine speeds exceeding 10000 rev/min and CRs ranging from 9 to 13. Combustion analysis is also included, allowing mass fraction burn (MFB) comparison.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

2007-08-05
2007-01-3552
This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Design of the Air Flow Orifice or Restrictor for Race Car Applications

2007-08-05
2007-01-3553
Several race car competitions seek to limit engine power through a rule that requires all of the engine combustion air passes through a hole of prescribed diameter. As the approach and departure wall shapes to this hole, usually termed orifice or restrictor are not prescribed, there is opportunity for innovation in these shapes to obtain maximum flow and therefore power. This paper reports measurements made for a range of restrictor types including venturis with conical inlets and outlets of various angles and the application of slotted throats of the ‘Dall tube’ type. Although normal venturis have been optimized as subsonic flow measuring devices with minimum pressure losses, at the limit the flow in the throat is sonic and the down stream shocks associated with flow transition from sub-sonic to sonic are best handled with sudden angular changes and the boundary layer minimized by the corner slots between the convergent and divergent cones.
Technical Paper

Spatial and Temporal Temperature Distributions in a Spark Ignition Engine Piston at WOT

2007-04-16
2007-01-1436
Two coupled finite element analysis (FEA) programs were written to determine the transient and steady state temperature distribution in a spark ignition engine piston. The programs estimated the temperatures at each crank angle degree (CAD) through warm-up to thermal steady state. A commercial FEA code was used to combine the steady state temperature distribution with the mechanical loads to find the stress response at each CAD for one complete cycle. The first FEA program was a very fast and robust non-linear thermal code to estimate spatial and time resolved heat flux from the combustion chamber to the aluminum alloy piston crown. This model applied the energy conservation equation to the near wall gas and includes the effects of turbulence, a propagating heat source, and a quench layer allowing estimates of local, instantaneous near-wall temperature gradients and the resulting heat fluxes.
Technical Paper

Highly Turbocharging a Restricted, Odd Fire, Two Cylinder Small Engine - Design, Lubrication, Tuning and Control

2006-12-05
2006-01-3637
This paper describes the mechanical component design, lubrication, tuning and control aspects of a restricted, odd fire, highly turbocharged (TC) engine for Formula SAE competition. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a twin cylinder inline arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. A detailed theoretical analysis was completed to determine engine specifications and operating conditions. Results from the analysis indicated a new engine design was necessary to sustain highly TC operation. Dry sump lubrication was implemented after initial oil surge problems were found with the wet sump system during vehicle testing. The design and development of the system is outlined, together with brake performance effects for the varying systems.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Gasketless Cylinder Head / Block Interface for an Open Deck, Multi Cylinder, Highly Turbocharged Small Engine

2006-11-13
2006-32-0036
This paper describes the design and development of a gasketless interface, which was used successfully to couple an aluminium cylinder head to an open deck design cylinder block. The cylinder block was manufactured from aluminium, featuring shrink fit dry cast iron liners. Extensive CAE modelling was employed to implement the gasketless interface and thus avoid using a conventional metal or fiber based cylinder head gasket. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a 430 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC) twin cylinder in-line arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. The new design removed the conventional head gasket and relied on the correct amount of face pressure generated by interference between the cylinder head and block to seal the interface. This had advantages in improving the structural integrity of the weak open deck design.
Technical Paper

Optimization of All SI Engine Combustion Control and Related Events for Efficiency

2006-04-03
2006-01-0045
There are two parts to achieving the optimization reported here. The development of an engine simulation model and an optimization algorithm. The engine performance is evaluated using a quasi-dimensional engine combustion model with sub models to incorporate friction, heat losses and abnormal combustion, that is knocking. After extensive search and development a new Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO), has been developed. Optimization includes, for the first time, the search of discontinuous design variables. The input variables considered for this investigation are manifold air pressure, air-fuel ratio, spark timing, compression ratio, valve timing events including valve open duration, maximum valve lift and engine speed. This enables the identification of the maximum thermal efficiency at a given power output at any engine operating speed.
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