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Technical Paper

Aerodynamically Induced Loads on Hood Latch and Hood Retention Systems

Hood latches are provided with a secondary latch mechanism in order to restrain hoods in the event of an incomplete closing operation. It is important thus to understand the aerodynamically induced loading conditions the latch and hood will be subject to in order to design the hood and hood retention system to withstand those loads. In this paper a method of collecting load and displacement data from actual vehicles is presented, as well as an analysis of the results and the implications for hood and latch design.
Technical Paper

Trajectory-Tracking Control for Autonomous Driving Considering Its Stability with ESP

With rapid increase of vehicles on the road, safety concerns have become increasingly prominent. Since the leading cause of many traffic accidents is known to be by human drivers, developing autonomous vehicles is considered to be an effective approach to solve the problems above. Although trajectory tracking plays one of the most important roles on autonomous driving, handling the coupling between trajectory-tracking control and ESP under certain driving scenarios remains to be challenging. This paper focuses on trajectory-tracking control considering the role of ESP. A vehicle model is developed with two degrees of freedom, including vehicle lateral, and yaw motions. Based on the proposed model, the vehicle trajectory is separated into both longitudinal and lateral motion. The coupling effect of the vehicle and ESP is analyzed in the paper. The lateral trajectory-tracking algorithm is developed based on the preview follower theory.
Technical Paper

Application of CAEBAT System Approach for a Liquid-Cooled Automotive Battery Pack

As one of many pack-level battery simulation approaches developed within the General Motors-led Computer-Aided Engineering of Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) Phase 1 project, the system approach treats the entire battery pack as a dynamic system which includes multiple engineering disciplines for simulation. It is the most efficient approach of all the CAEBAT battery pack-level approaches in terms of computational time and resources. This paper reports the application of the system approach for a 24-cell liquid-cooled prototype battery pack. It also summarizes the verification of the approach by comparing the simulation results with the measurement data. The results using the system approach are found to have a very good agreement with the measurements.
Journal Article

The Next Generation “Voltec” Extended Range EV Propulsion System

The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) with extended-range (ER) that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on power generated by an on-board gasoline engine after depletion of the battery charge. For 2016, GM has developed the next generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. Building on the experience of the first generation Volt, the second generation targeted improved all-electric range, improved charge sustaining fuel economy, and improved performance. All of this was to be accomplished while maintaining the EV character of the first generation Volt which customers clearly valued. This paper describes the next generation “Voltec” system and the realized improvements in efficiency and performance. The features of the propulsion system components, including energy storage, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, on-board charging, and engine are described and compared with the previous generation.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Analysis of Electrical Parameters for Design of Analog Circuits in Automotive Modules

The intention of this paper is to discuss the importance of analysis of some electrical parameters in order to design analog circuits in electronic modules, including automotive ones. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, high performance and higher integration density, so that it explains why such analysis is crucial to achieve better performances and meet the desired results.

The Utility and Fuel Consumption of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

There are now a wide variety of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in or near production. They reduce or displace petroleum consumption with of various combinations of conventional IC engine, mechanical transmission, liquid fuel storage, electrical energy storage, electrical and electro-mechanical energy conversion, and vehicle-to-grid energy interface. These Electrified types of vehicles include Mild Hybrid, Full Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid, Extended Range Electric, and Battery Electric. Some types differ in their actual usability for the real mixes of driving trips, and further that differ in their effectiveness to reduce or displace fuel in actual real world driving use. Vehicle size is also a factor in total vehicle utility in transporting people. If we may segment drivers by their driving needs, in each segment, we see a particular type of electrified vehicle that is better suited than others at minimizing fuel cost and petroleum consumption for the purposes of transporting people.
Technical Paper

Innovation Flow and Metrics Essentials

The innovation term has been so widely misused that the confusion observed among the companies trying to get themselves into the innovation realm is a common and natural consequence. The lack of understanding of the innovation dynamics, flow and metrics generally culminate in a non-well-thought implementation of innovation processes and policies that are usually tragic in the short term. The most common consequences are the loss of credibility of the innovation process in general among leaders and employees, and the loss of credibility of the company as an innovative company among suppliers, partners and customers, causing these companies to abandon this powerful tool and, as consequence, to limit their capabilities to compete in the future. In order to prevent this from happening, companies that were not built upon innovation will need to grow capability and change cultural priorities to match the demands of the innovation process.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
Technical Paper

Brake Response Time Measurement for a HIL Vehicle Dynamics Simulator

Vehicle dynamics simulation with Hardware In the Loop (HIL) has been demonstrated to reduce development and validation time for dynamic control systems. For dynamic control systems such as Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC), an accurate vehicle dynamics performance simulation system requires the Electronic Brake Control Module (EBCM) coupled with the vehicles brake system hardware. This kind of HIL simulation-specific software tool can further increase efficiency by means of automation and optimization of the development and validation process. This paper presents a method for HIL vehicle dynamics simulator optimization through Brake Response Time (BRT) correlation. The paper discusses the differences between the physical vehicle and the HIL vehicle dynamics simulator. The differences between the physical and virtual systems are used as factors in the development of a Design Of Experiment (DOE) quantifying HIL simulator performance.
Technical Paper

Cell Balancing Algorithm Verification through a Simulation Model for Lithium Ion Energy Storage Systems

To support the market introduction of lithium ion energy storage systems for HEV and EREV applications, a process and tool was developed to expedite the verification of the lithium-ion cell balancing system across differing usage scenarios and cell imbalance rates. Presented is an overview of the cell imbalance analysis methodology and tool used in the development and verification of General Motors cell balancing systems. The use of this analysis methodology and tool has allowed for a cell balancing system optimization that would not have been possible with the use of actual energy storage systems because of the magnitude of lab or vehicle time required to execute the array of tests necessary to comprehend the large number of factors than can influence balancing.
Journal Article

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 9 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. SAE J2578 is currently being revised so that it will continue to be relevant as FCV development moves forward. For example, test methods were refined to verify the acceptability of hydrogen discharges when parking in residential garages and commercial structures and after crash tests prescribed by government regulation, and electrical requirements were updated to reflect the complexities of modern electrical circuits which interconnect both AC and DC circuits to improve efficiency and reduce cost.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronically-Controlled, Limited-Slip Differential (eLSD) for FWD Applications

Limited-slip differentials improve traction and handling when compared to open differentials, but offer no active modulation and can compromise typical driving. A number of passive control systems exist that attempt to reduce this compromise. Electronically controlled limited-slip differentials (eLSD) are being introduced that allow active control of the differential in all driving situations and can be operated as an open differential, a fully locked differential, or at any point between these extremes. Such an eLSD system was implemented in two General Motors front wheel drive cars-one on an automatic transmission and applied by the transmission pump, the other on a manual transmission and applied by an external pump. This eLSD system contains a multi-plate wet clutch connected to the differential carrier and right side half-shaft of an all wheel drive capable transmission.
Technical Paper

Active Fuel Management™ Technology: Hardware Development on a 2007 GM 3.9L V-6 OHV SI Engine

In the North American automotive market, cylinder deactivation by means of engine valve deactivation is becoming a significant enabler in reducing the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of large displacement engines. This allows for the continued market competitiveness of large displacement spark ignition (SI) engines that provide exceptional performance with reduced fuel consumption. As an alternative to a major engine redesign, the Active Fuel Management™ (AFM™) system is a lower cost and effective technology that provides improved fuel economy during part-load conditions. Cylinder deactivation is made possible by utilizing innovative new base engine hardware in conjunction with an advanced control system. In the GM 3.9L V-6 Over Head Valve (OHV) engine, the standard hydraulic roller lifters on the engine's right bank are replaced with deactivating hydraulic roller lifters and a manifold assembly of oil control solenoids.
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Technical Paper

Mercury Switches in Underhood and Trunk Lamp Applications: A Detailed Environmental and Economic Analysis of Alternatives

The largest application of mercury in automotive applications occurs in underhood and trunk lamp activation switches. A reduction of mercury in this application will have a significant impact on automotive mercury usage. Using environmentally conscious design and manufacturing principles, this paper will investigate functional alternatives for the activation of underhood (U/H) and trunk lamp applications. Five alternatives to perform the activation function will be analyzed in four areas over their life cycles: Environmental Economic Engineering Manufacturing Each alternative will be ranked on criteria in each of these four areas using documented LCA processes. Totals will be generated for each area, then weighted and added to arrive at an overall score. Four groups of weightings will be used based on the vehicle type: small cars, mid-size cars, large/luxury cars, and trucks.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Control Systems Approach to Steering Shudder

Historically, power steering shudder, a vibration which occurs while steering a vehicle at low speeds, has been approached with systematic component-swapping experiments. This approach was time consuming and did not necessarily yield satisfactory results. In this paper it is shown that steering shudder can be analytically approached as a control system with a closed-loop limit cycle caused by the interaction of the chassis and the steering system. This approach provides a metric for determining a vehicle's propensity to shudder and allows quick predictions of the results of changing components. The approach is model-based, and incorporates chassis and hydraulic system components. Results obtained from the control systems analysis have been validated by a vehicle study, which showed a strong correlation between subjective evaluations and the stability metric provided by the analysis.