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Technical Paper

Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low-Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0111
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study of Friction Optimization Potential for Lubrication Circuits of Light-Duty Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0056
Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with stringent homologation targets and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystems has been one of the most important topics of modern Diesel engine development. In particular, the present paper analyzes the lubrication circuit potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of oil circuit design, oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low formulations) and thermal management. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used.
Technical Paper

Development of Evaluation Methods for Steering Loss of Assist

2019-04-02
2019-01-1236
Loss of power steering assist (LoA) is viewed as a potential hazard in certain vehicle operational scenarios. Despite the importance of this steering failure mode, few published test protocols for the objective or subjective evaluation of vehicle performance in a loss of assist situation exist. The first part of this paper examines five of the key steering failure modes that can result in LoA and discusses why LoA persists as a key industry challenge. The second part analyzes the situational dynamics affecting vehicle controllability during a LoA event and proposes a subjective evaluation driving course that facilitates evaluations in various LoA scenarios. A corresponding objective test procedure and metric is also proposed. These evaluation methods support consistent performance evaluation of physical vehicles while also enabling the prediction of vehicle characteristics early in the vehicle development process (VDP).
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans.
Journal Article

Fuel & Lubricant Effects on Stochastic Preignition

2019-01-15
2019-01-0038
In this multi-phase study, fuel and lubricant effects on stochastic preignition (SPI) were examined. First, the behavior of fuels for which SPI data had previously been collected were characterized in terms of their combustion and emissions behavior, and correlations between these characteristics and their SPI behavior were examined. Second, new SPI data was collected for a matrix of fuels that was constructed to test and confirm hypotheses that resulted from interpretation of the earlier data in the study and from data in open literature. Specifically, the extent to which the presence of heavy components in the fuel affected SPI propensity, and the extent to which flame initiation propensity affected SPI propensity, were examined. Finally, the interaction of fuels with lubricants expected to exhibit a range of SPI propensities was examined.
Technical Paper

A Robust Preignition Rating Methodology: Evaluating the Propensity to Establish Propagating Flames under Real Engine Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2241
In this work, an experimental and analysis methodology was developed to evaluate the preignition propensity of fuels and engine operating conditions in an SI engine. A heated glow plug was introduced into the combustion chamber to induce early propagating flames. As the temperature of the glowplug varied, both the fraction of cycles experiencing these early flames and the phasing of this combustion in the engine cycle varied. A statistical methodology for assigning a single-value to this complex behavior was developed and found to have very good repeatability. The effects of engine operating conditions and fuels were evaluated using this methodology. While this study is not directly studying the so-called stochastic preignition or low-speed preignition problem, it studies one aspect of that problem in a very controlled manner.
Journal Article

Functional Requirements to Exceed the 100 kW/l Milestone for High Power Density Automotive Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0072
The paper describes the challenges and results achieved in developing a new high-speed Diesel combustion system capable of exceeding the imaginative threshold of 100 kW/l. High-performance, state-of-art prototype components from automotive diesel technology were provided in order to set-up a single-cylinder research engine demonstrator. Key design parameters were identified in terms boost, engine speed, fuel injection pressure and injector nozzle flow rates. In this regard, an advanced piezo injection system capable of 3000 bar of maximum injection pressure was selected, coupled to a robust base engine featuring ω-shaped combustion bowl and low swirl intake ports. The matching among the above-described elements has been thoroughly examined and experimentally parameterized.
Technical Paper

Critical Plane Analysis of Rubber Bushing Durability under Road Loads

2016-04-05
2016-01-0393
We demonstrate here an accounting of damage accrual under road loads for a filled natural rubber bushing. The accounting is useful to developers who wish to avoid the typical risks in development programs: either the risk of premature failure, or of costly overdesign. The accounting begins with characterization of the elastomer to quantify governing behaviors: stress-strain response, fatigue crack growth rate, crack precursor size, and strain crystallization. Finite Element Analysis is used to construct a nonlinear mapping between loads and strain components within each element. Multiaxial, variable amplitude strain histories are computed from road loads. Damage accrues in this reckoning via the growth of cracks. Crack growth is calculated via integration of a rate law from an initial size to a size marking end-of-life.
Technical Paper

Internal and Near-Nozzle Flow in a Multi-Hole Gasoline Injector Under Flashing and Non-Flashing Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-0944
A computational and experimental study was performed to characterize the flow within a gasoline injector and the ensuing sprays. The computations included the effects of turbulence, cavitation, flash-boiling, compressibility, and the presence of non-condensible gases. The flow domain corresponded to the Engine Combustion Network's Spray G, an eight-hole counterbore injector operating in a variety of conditions. First, a rate tube method was used to measure the rate of injection, which was then used to define inlet boundary conditions for simulation. Correspondingly, injection under submerged conditions was simulated for direct comparison with experimental measurements of discharge coefficient. Next, the internal flow and external spray into pressurized nitrogen were simulated under the base spray G conditions. Finally, injection under flashing conditions was simulated, where the ambient pressure was below the vapor pressure of the fuel.
Journal Article

Estimation of Elemental Composition of Diesel Fuel Containing Biodiesel

2013-10-14
2013-01-2600
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are major elements in vehicle fuels. Knowledge of fuels elemental composition is helpful in addressing its performance characteristics. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen composition is an important parameter in engine calibration affecting vehicle performance, emissions and fuel economy. Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters(FAME), derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, has become an important commercial marketplace automotive fuel in the United States (US) and around the world over last few years. FAME biodiesels have many chemical and physical property differences compared to conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. Also, the properties of biodiesel vary based on the feedstock chosen for biodiesel production. One of the key differences between petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel is the oxygen content.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0005
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Video

Real time Renewable Energy Availability for EV Charging

2012-03-29
Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

2011-10-04
2011-36-0325
The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

2011-10-04
2011-36-0371
It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
Technical Paper

Automotive Materials Engineering Challenges and Solutions for the Use of Ethanol and Methanol Blended Fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0729
Economic market forces and increasing environmental awareness of gasoline have led to interest in developing alternatives to gasoline, and extending the current global supply for transportation fuels. One viable strategy is the use of alternative alcohol fuels for combustion engines, with ethanol and methanol in various concentration ranges proposed and in-use. Utilizing and citing data from this review, a comprehensive overview of the materials selection and engineering challenges facing metals, plastics and elastomers are presented. The engineering approach and solution-sets discussed will focus on production feasibility and implementation. The effects from the fuel chemistry and quality of fuel ethanol produced on the related vehicle components are discussed.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Engine Oil Specifications, Past, Present and Global

2009-11-02
2009-01-2664
Engine oil specifications have been changing since the invention of the automobile and the internal combustion engine. The industry associations that have played a key role in engine oil specification development have changed or evolved in fairly regular time intervals. The specifications, the tests behind the specifications, and the groups involved in shaping the specifications are discussed from a historical and present day perspective.
Technical Paper

Investigations into the Effects of Thermal and Compositional Stratification on HCCI Combustion – Part I: Metal Engine Results

2009-04-20
2009-01-1105
This study utilized a 4-valve engine under HCCI combustion conditions. Each side of the split intake port was fed independently with different temperatures and reactant compositions. Therefore, two stratification approaches were enabled: thermal stratification and compositional stratification. Argon was used as a diluent to achieve higher temperatures and stratify the in-cylinder temperature indirectly via a stratification of the ratio of specific heats (γ = cp/cv). Tests covered five operating conditions (including two values of A/F and two loads) and four stratification cases (including one homogeneous and three with varied temperature and composition). Stratifications of the reactants were expected to affect the combustion control and upper load limit through the combustion phasing and duration, respectively. The two approaches to stratification both affect thermal unmixedness. Since argon has a high γ, it reached higher temperatures through the compression stroke [1].
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Development of a System Level Soot-NOx Trap Aftertreatment Device Model

2006-10-16
2006-01-3287
A Soot-NOx Trap (SNT) is a combinatorial aftertreatment device intended to decrease both particulate and NOx emissions simultaneously. A system-level Soot-NOx Trap model was developed by adding Lean NOx Trap kinetics to a 1D Diesel Particulate Filter model. The hybrid model was validated against each parent model for the limiting cases, then exercised to investigate the interacting redox behavior. Modulations in temperature and exhaust air-fuel ratio were investigated for their ability to facilitate particulate oxidation and NOx reduction in the trap.
Technical Paper

GM's Evolving Epsilon Midsize Car Platform

2005-04-11
2005-01-1028
This paper reviews the history of the General Motor's Epsilon Platform from a Body Structure perspective. From the time that it was conceived in 1996 to the present, the platform has evolved to meet many changing requirements. The focus of this paper will cover basic body requirements such as crash performance, modal requirements, packaging issues, changes for wheelbase and powertrains, mass, different body styles, etc, including the differences between European and US requirements. It will demonstrate that this globally developed platform met all its initial requirements and continued to evolve over time to meet additional changing requirements.
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