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Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR1

This paper presents an overview of the aerodynamic development of the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR1. Extensive wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulations were completed to engineer the ZR1’s aerodynamics to improve lift-to-drag efficiency and track capability over previous Corvette offerings. The ZR1 architecture changes posed many aerodynamic challenges including increased vehicle cooling, strict packaging demands, wider front track width, and aggressive exterior styling. Through motorsports-inspired aerodynamic development, the ZR1 was engineered to overcome these challenges through the creation of new devices such as a raised rear wing and front underwing. The resulting Standard ZR1 achieved a top speed of 212 mph making it the fastest Corvette ever [1]. Optionally, the ZR1 with the ZTK Performance Package provides the highest downforce of any Corvette, generating approximately 950 pounds at the ZTK’s top speed [1].
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis and Simulation Study of Automobile Millimeter Wave Radar Noise

The paper analyzes the mechanism of automobile millimeter wave radar noise, this paper does not study radar noise from the angle of signal processing, but from the level of false detection and missed detection, at the same time, the noise mechanism is modeled and verified. Firstly, the purpose and significance of the research of radar vehicle noise are described, and then, we summarize and outline the macro phenomenon and the specific characteristics of the automobile millimeter wave radar noise.
Journal Article

FWD Halfshaft Angle Optimization Using 12 Degree of Freedom Analytical Model

This paper describes the development of an analytical method to assess and optimize halfshaft joint angles to avoid excessive 3rd halfshaft order vibrations during wide-open-throttle (WOT) and light drive-away events. The objective was to develop a test-correlated analytical model to assess and optimize driveline working angles during the virtual design phase of a vehicle program when packaging tradeoffs are decided. A twelve degree-of-freedom (12DOF) system model was constructed that comprehends halfshaft dynamic angle change, axle torque, powertrain (P/T) mount rate progression and axial forces generated by tripot type constant velocity (CV) joints. Note: “tripot” and “tripod” are alternate nomenclatures for the same type of joint. Simple lumped parameter models have historically been used for P/T mount optimization; however, this paper describes a method for using a lumped parameter model to also optimize driveline working angles.
Journal Article

Integration of Component Design Data for Automotive Turbocharger with Vehicle Fault Model Using JA6268 Methodology

Suppliers and integrators are working with SAE’s HM-1 standards team to develop a mechanism to allow “Health Ready Components” to be integrated into larger systems to enable broader IVHM functionality (reference SAE JA6268). This paper will discuss how the design data provided by the supplier of a component/subsystem can be integrated into a vehicle reference model with emphasis on how each aspect of the model is transmitted to minimize ambiguity. The intent is to enhance support for the analytics, diagnostics and prognostics for the embedded component. In addition, we describe functionality being delegated to other system components and that provided by the supplier via syndicated web services. As a specific example, the paper will describe the JA6268 data submittal for a typical automotive turbocharger and other engine air system components to clarify the data modeling and integration processes.
Technical Paper

Using OCTO SOI nMOSFET to Handle High Current for Automotive Modules

This paper presents an experimental comparative study between the OCTOGONAL-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) nMOSFET (OSM) and the conventional SOI nMOSFET (CSM) considering the same bias conditions and the same gate area (AG), in order to verify the influence of this new MOSFET layout style to handle high current for automotive modules. Analog integrated circuits (ICs) design tends to be considered an art due to a large number of variables and objectives to achieve the product specifications. The designer has to find the right tradeoffs to achieve the desired automotive specification such as low power, low voltage, high speed and high current driver. SOI MOSFET's technology is required to provide the growth of embedded electronics. This growth is driving demand for power-handling devices that are smaller yet still provide high current driver capabilities.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Technical Paper

Innovation Flow and Metrics Essentials

The innovation term has been so widely misused that the confusion observed among the companies trying to get themselves into the innovation realm is a common and natural consequence. The lack of understanding of the innovation dynamics, flow and metrics generally culminate in a non-well-thought implementation of innovation processes and policies that are usually tragic in the short term. The most common consequences are the loss of credibility of the innovation process in general among leaders and employees, and the loss of credibility of the company as an innovative company among suppliers, partners and customers, causing these companies to abandon this powerful tool and, as consequence, to limit their capabilities to compete in the future. In order to prevent this from happening, companies that were not built upon innovation will need to grow capability and change cultural priorities to match the demands of the innovation process.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Automotive Assembly Tasks using the HUMOSIM Framework

Efficient methods for simulating operators performing part handling tasks in manufacturing plants are needed. The simulation of part handling motions is an important step towards the implementation of virtual manufacturing for the purpose of improving worker productivity and reducing injuries in the workplace. However, industrial assembly tasks are often complex and involve multiple interactions between workers and their environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of industrial simulations using the Human Motion Simulation Framework developed at the University of Michigan. Three automotive assembly operations spanning scenarios, such as small and large parts, tool use, walking, re-grasping, reaching inside a vehicle, etc. were selected.
Technical Paper

Engine Component Effects on Spark-Ignition Caused Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

The objective of this paper is to propose a new model in the identification of a contributing factor to the generation of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) due to the operation of a spark-ignited engine. This model incorporates parameters in the electrical operation of the ignition system components and their interaction with the engine mechanical structure, which is also used as a circuit component (the ignition system “ground”). T he model was developed as a result of analysis of numerous studies that have been conducted over the years in an attempt to identify why RFI characteristics can differ when using identical components on different engines, or locating the components in different locations on identical engines. This situation is a problem due to the resulting uncertainty with respect to the determination of what is the optimum vehicle ignition system configuration to meet all electrical and RFI or electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.
Technical Paper

Radio Usage: Observations from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study

This paper discusses radio usage habits observed during analysis of 700 hours of video sampled from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study database. Analysts used large-scale printouts of each vehicle's radio faceplate and recorded interactions based on video analysis of hand movement and location (without the assistance of audio recordings). The duration and specific manipulations or adjustments were recorded for each interaction. The results summarize the length and type of interactions, most often-used controls, and total percentage of time drivers interacted with the radio.
Technical Paper

Driver Performance Research Regarding Systems for Use While Backing

General Motors has pursued research to develop systems intended to assist drivers in recognizing people or objects behind them when they are backing, and this paper summarizes results from this research. We are currently working with ultrasonic rear parking assist systems, rear radar backing warning systems, and rear camera systems, which are briefly described and their utility for assisting drivers in recognizing people or objects behind them discussed. Our research on driver performance with a prototype long range backing warning system found that audible and visual warning combinations may not be effective in warning distracted drivers about unexpected objects. Driver expectancy is thought to play a significant role in this result. However, further research found drivers were more likely to notice an unexpected obstacle behind their vehicle with a prototype rear view video camera system compared to ultrasonic rear parking assist and trials that had no system.
Technical Paper

GM's Evolving Epsilon Midsize Car Platform

This paper reviews the history of the General Motor's Epsilon Platform from a Body Structure perspective. From the time that it was conceived in 1996 to the present, the platform has evolved to meet many changing requirements. The focus of this paper will cover basic body requirements such as crash performance, modal requirements, packaging issues, changes for wheelbase and powertrains, mass, different body styles, etc, including the differences between European and US requirements. It will demonstrate that this globally developed platform met all its initial requirements and continued to evolve over time to meet additional changing requirements.
Technical Paper

Design Enhancement of the Rear Composite Structure for the 2005 Chevrolet Corvette Coupe and Z06

This paper describes the design and development of the rear compartment structure of the sixth generation Corvette, C6, which starts in the 2005 model year. The improved design integrates the rear compartment packaging to address issues seen on fifth generation Corvette, C5. The molded composite fiberglass reinforced, tub and surround panels are similar to the C5. These large panels are modified to fit the new styling theme of the C6, while also addressing the packaging requirements of the updated underbody structure and exhaust system. New composite side support brackets and cross car reinforcement combine to address several desired improvements. These side support brackets are designed to package the rear audio speakers, electrical modules, wiring and cable routing while also addressing build variation and localized stiffness improvement. The side brackets support the surround panel increasing the manufacturing control of the surround panel.
Technical Paper

Rapid Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements for Vehicle Applications

As more wireless services such as satellite radio (SDARS), navigation systems, OnStar, and mobile telephones are installed on GM vehicles, there is a need to make quick and accurate vehicle antenna pattern measurements. The interaction between vehicle and antenna must be included to ensure accurate vehicle antenna measurements. This implies that the size of the effective antenna should include both the antenna and vehicle interaction dimensions. For the frequency range of 500 MHz to 6 GHz, one solution is to use a spherical near-field system. The Satimo rapid probe array technology was selected to develop a vehicle antenna test system (ATS), which minimizes test time and maintains data accuracy. The ATS was designed to operate inside of an existing GM electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) anechoic chamber equipped with a nine-meter turntable.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ultra Thinwall Catalyst Substrates for TIER2 Emission Standards

The impact of ultra thinwall catalysts on TIER2 emission performance, packaging and total system cost was evaluated. The primary focus was to compare ultra-thinwall and thinwall cell configurations (400/3, 400/4, 600/2, 600/3, 600/3 hex, 900/2, and 1200/2) with a baseline 600/4 at constant substrate volume, washcoat and PGM loading. Other areas investigated included the evaluation of decreasing catalyst volume while maintaining constant or increased mass transfer capabilities while holding washcoat and PGM loadings constant. The emissions impact of varying washcoat and PGM loading was measured on specific substrates, including a comparison of square to hex cell. Backpressure for each configuration was calculated with the Corning substrate pressure drop modeling tool. Converters were rapid aged on dynamometers reflecting approximately a 50,000 mile aged performance. Emission testing was completed using the FTP test cycle.
Technical Paper

Posture and Position Validation of the 3-D CAD Manikin RAMSIS for Use in Automotive Design at General Motors

This paper describes the validation of RAMSIS, a 3-D CAD human model for ergonomic vehicle evaluation at General Motors (GM). The model’s capability to correctly predict position and posture in vehicle CAD environments was tested. H- and Eye point locations between RAMSIS manikins and their human counterparts were compared. We concluded that RAMSIS has good position and posture prediction capabilities and is a useful CAD ergonomic evaluation and design tool for vehicle interiors.
Technical Paper

Validation and Application of the 3-D CAD Manikin RAMSIS in Automotive Design

This paper describes the validation of RAMSIS, a 3-D CAD human model for ergonomic vehicle evaluation. At GM NAO, the model’s capability to correctly predict position and posture in vehicle CAD environments was tested. H- and Eye point locations between RAMSIS manikins and their human counterparts were compared. At GM/SAAB the model’s postural discomfort predictability was evaluated. Changes in postural discomfort predictions of the RAMSIS manikins were compared to that of the human subjects when they evaluated two different driving buck conditions. We concluded that RAMSIS has good position, posture and postural discomfort prediction capabilities and is a useful CAD ergonomic evaluation and design tool for vehicle interiors.