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Technical Paper

Effects of Wind Speed and Longitudinal Direction on Fire Patterns from a Vehicle Fire in a Compact Car

2017-03-28
2017-01-1353
This paper compares the material consumption and fire patterns which developed on four nearly identical compact sedans when each was burned for exactly the same amount of time, but with different wind speed and direction during the burns. This paper will also compare the effects of environmental exposure to the fire patterns on the vehicles. The burn demonstrations were completed at an outdoor facility in southeast Michigan on four late model compact sedans. The wind direction was controlled by placing the subject vehicle with either the front facing into the wind, or rear facing into the wind. Two of the burns were conducted when the average observed wind speed was 5-6kph and two of the burns were conducted at an average observed wind speed of 19kph.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Bench Test of a GT-Power Fast Running Model for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) Verification

2016-04-05
2016-01-0549
A GT-Power Fast Run Model simplified from detail model for HIL is verified with a bench test using the dSPACE Simulator. Firstly, the conversion process from a detailed model to FRM model is briefly described. Then, the spark timing, fuel pulse with control for FAR, and torque level control are developed for proof of concept. Moreover a series of FRM/Simulink co-simulation and HIL tests are conducted. In the summary, the test results are presented and compared with GT detailed model simulations. The test results show that the FRM/dSPACE HIL stays consistent in most variables of interest under 0.7-0.9 real-time factor condition between 1000 - 5000 RPM. The same steady-state can be reached by RCP controllers or with GT-Power internal controllers. The transient states are close using different control algorithm. The main purpose of HIL application is achieved, despite inconsistencies in performance data like fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Development of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System for 2016 Chevrolet Malibu

2016-04-05
2016-01-1169
GM has developed an all-new gasoline-electric hybrid powertrain for the model year 2016 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid vehicle, which was designed to achieve excellent fuel economy, performance, and drive quality. The powertrain shares the transmission architecture with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle, but includes changes to optimize the system for engine driven charge sustaining operation in the range of conditions represented by the US EPA 5 cycle fuel economy tests. In this paper, we describe the Malibu Hybrid propulsion system features and components, including the battery pack, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, engine, and thermal system. The modifications between the Volt and Malibu Hybrid propulsion systems are discussed and explained as resulting from the differences between the primarily electric and gasoline powered applications.
Journal Article

Process Robustness of Laser Braze-Welded Al/Cu Connectors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1198
Laser welding of dissimilar metals such as Aluminum and Copper, which is required for Li-ion battery joining, is challenging due to the inevitable formation of the brittle and high electrical-resistant intermetallic compounds. Recent research has shown that by using a novel technology, called laser braze-welding, the Al-Cu intermetallics can be minimized to achieve superior mechanical and electrical joint performance. This paper investigates the robustness of the laser braze-welding process. Three product and process categories, i.e. choice of materials, joint configurations, and process conditions, are studied. It is found that in-process effects such as sample cleanness and shielding gas fluctuations have a minor influence on the process robustness. Furthermore, many pre-process effects, e.g. design changes such as multiple layers or anodized base material can be successfully welded by process adaption.
Journal Article

Adjoint-Driven Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on a Combination of Steady State and Transient Flow Solutions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1599
Aerodynamic vehicle design improvements require flow simulation driven iterative shape changes. The 3-D flow field simulations (CFD analysis) are not explicitly descriptive in providing the direction for aerodynamic shape changes (reducing drag force or increasing the down-force). In recent times, aerodynamic shape optimization using the adjoint method has been gaining more attention in the automotive industry. The traditional DOE (Design of Experiment) optimization method based on the shape parameters requires a large number of CFD flow simulations for obtaining design sensitivities of these shape parameters. The large number of CFD flow simulations can be significantly reduced if the adjoint method is applied. The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate and validate the adjoint method for vehicle aerodynamic shape improvements.
Journal Article

Control and Integration Challenges for Future Automatic Transmissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1102
The ever-increasing regulatory requirement on CO2 emissions drives efficiency improvement of vehicle powertrain systems. In this context, three mega trends have been happening in the automotive transmission industry. First, future automatic transmissions will have more gear steps to offer a broader ratio spread and finer ratio steps, which may enable the engine to operate at its efficient regions more often. Second, engine downsizing with boosted power and flexible cylinder deactivation have been become the technology trend to achieve better thermal efficiency. These engine technologies demand improved transmission dampers with greater isolation capabilities to drive future transmission dampers to be equipped with softer springs. Third, future transmissions will be more efficient due to new architectures and incremental subsystem improvements.
Technical Paper

Application of CAEBAT Full Field Approach for a Liquid-Cooled Automotive Battery Pack

2016-04-05
2016-01-1217
The Computer-Aided Engineering of Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) Phase 1 project is a U.S. Department of Energy-funded, multi-year project which is aimed at developing a complete CAE tool set for the automotive battery pack design. This paper reports the application of the full field approach of the CAEBAT which is developed by the General Motors-led industry team, for a 24-cell liquid-cooled prototype battery pack. It also summarizes the verification of the approach by comparing the simulation results with the measurement data. The simulation results using the Full Field Approach are found to have a very good agreement with the measurement data.
Technical Paper

The GM RWD PHEV Propulsion System for the Cadillac CT6 Luxury Sedan

2016-04-05
2016-01-1159
This paper describes the capabilities of a new two-motor plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion system developed for rear wheel drive. The PHEV system comprises a 2.0L turbocharged 4-cylinder direct-injected gasoline engine with the new hybrid transmission [1], a new traction power inverter module, a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery pack, and on-board battery charger and 12V power converter module. The capability and features of the system components are described, and component performance and vehicle data are reported. The resulting propulsion system provides an excellent combination of electric-only driving, acceleration, and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Next Generation “Voltec” Charging System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1229
The electric vehicle on-board charger (OBC) is responsible for converting AC grid energy to DC energy to charge the battery pack. This paper describes the development of GM’s second generation OBC used in the 2016 Chevrolet Volt. The second generation OBC provides significant improvements in efficiency, size, and mass compared to the first generation. Reduced component count supports goals of improved reliability and lower cost. Complexity reduction of the hardware and diagnostic software was undertaken to eliminate potential failures.
Technical Paper

Normally-Engaged Dual-Piston Clutch for Engine Stop-Start Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-1141
For the conventional 6 speed automatic transmission with engine stop-start powertrain, an electrically-driven auxiliary pump is implemented to maintain the transmission line pressure as required to lock-up the CB1234 clutch during engine auto-stop conditions. Upon releasing the brake pedal, the transmission engages into first gear with the objective to accelerate the vehicle in a responsive manner. In this study, a novel normally-engaged dual-piston clutch concept is designed to keep the CB1234 clutch locked-up during engine auto-stop conditions with the intention to eliminate the auxiliary pump without compromising vehicle performance. This dual piston clutch concept requires a relatively low line pressure to release the normally-engaged clutch when needed, thus, minimizing the hydraulic pumping work. To explore the functionality of this concept under a wide-open-throttle (WOT) auto-start transition, modeling and simulation of the normally-engaged dual-piston clutch is completed.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Exhaust Pressure Control with Dynamic Feedforward for Engine Protection

2014-04-01
2014-01-1163
The need to reduce fuel consumption and harmful pollutants from engines is an important task for automotive industry. It has led to technological advances in new engine design, such as engine downsizing. Due to the reduction of displacement, engine power output is reduced and thus its overall performance is limited. In order to increase torque and power, engines are typically boosted by turbochargers or superchargers. Meanwhile, the improvement on turbo design makes it possible to operate VGT (variable geometry turbocharger) at harsher exhaust environment for gasoline engines as well (e.g., with much higher exhaust temperature than that of diesel engines). This makes VGT related control problems more challenging and requires attention to protecting corresponding engine hardware during an entire engine life.
Technical Paper

HIL Driveline Dyno

2014-04-01
2014-01-1738
Today's sophisticated state-of-the-art powertrains with various intelligent control units (xCU) need to be calibrated and tested stand-alone as well as in interaction. Today the majority of this work is still carried out with prototype vehicles on test tracks. Moving prototype vehicle tests from the road into the lab is key in achieving shorter development times and saving development cost. This kind of frontloading requires a modular and powerful simulation of all vehicle components, test track, and driver in steady state and dynamic operation. The described HIL (Hardware In the Loop) high performance driveline dyno test bed uses driveline components and models from the engine all the way to the wheel ends. The test cell was built to do real time vehicle maneuvers and NVH testing. This test setup can emulate any road surface and grade and vehicle inertia including wheels and engine as close to reality as possible.
Journal Article

Electrical Architecture Optimization and Selection - Cost Minimization via Wire Routing and Wire Sizing

2014-04-01
2014-01-0320
In this paper, we propose algorithms for cost minimization of physical wires that are used to connect electronic devices in the vehicle. The wiring cost is one of the most important drivers of electrical architecture selection. Our algorithms perform wire routing from a source device to a destination device through harnesses, by selecting the optimized wire size. In addition, we provide optimized splice allocation with limited constraints. Based on the algorithms, we develop a tool which is integrated into an off-the-shelf optimization and workflow system-level design tool. The algorithms and the tool provide an efficient, flexible, scalable, and maintainable approach for cost analysis and architecture selection.
Journal Article

General Motors Rear Wheel Drive Eight Speed Automatic Transmission

2014-04-01
2014-01-1721
General Motors shall introduce a new rear wheel drive eight speed automatic transmission, known as the 8L90, in the 2015 Chevrolet Corvette. The rated turbine torque capacity is 1000 Nm. This transmission replaces the venerable 6L80 six speed automatic. The objectives behind creation of this transmission are improved fuel economy, performance, and NVH. Packaging in the existing vehicle architecture and high mileage dependability are the givens. The architecture is required to offer low cost for a rear drive eight speed transmission while meeting the givens and objectives. An eight speed powerflow, invented by General Motors, was selected. This powerflow yields a 7.0 overall ratio spread, enabling improved launch capability because of a deeper first gear ratio and better fuel economy due to lower top gear N/V capability, relative to the 6L80. The eight speed ratios are generated using four simple planetary gearsets, two brake clutches, and three rotating clutches.
Journal Article

Application of POD plus LTI ROM to Battery Thermal Modeling: SISO Case

2014-04-01
2014-01-1843
The thermal behavior of a fluid-cooled battery can be modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Depending on the size and complexity of the battery module and the available computing hardware, the simulation can take days or weeks to run. This work introduces a reduced-order model that combines proper orthogonal decomposition, capturing the variation of the temperature field in the spatial domain, and linear time-invariant system techniques exploiting the linear relationship between the resulting proper orthogonal decomposition coefficients and the uniform heat source considered here as the input to the system. After completing an initial CFD run to establish the reduction, the reduced-order model runs much faster than the CFD model. This work will focus on thermal modeling of a single prismatic battery cell with one adjacent cooling channel. The extension to the multiple input multiple output case such as a battery module will be discussed in another paper.
Technical Paper

Power Capability Testing of a Lithium-ion Battery Using Hardware in the Loop

2010-04-12
2010-01-1073
The energy storage system (ESS) is the key enabler to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that offer improved fuel economy and reduced vehicle emissions. The power capability of a battery has significant impact on the fuel economy of HEVs. This paper presents the power capability testing of a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode using the hardware in the loop (HIL) at a wide range of charge/discharge conditions and at different temperatures. The achieved test results provide critical data of battery power characteristics and effectively accelerate the development of battery power prediction algorithm.
Technical Paper

Signal Age Fault Detection in Distributed Embedded Automotive Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0205
More and more advanced features such as adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance are being adopted in road vehicles and these features are usually implemented as distributed systems across multiple ECU nodes that are connected by communication busses. In order to tolerate transient faults affecting a safety critical signal transmitted via bus in such distributed systems, the last used value or a default safe value for a safety critical signal is usually used among different ECU nodes on the bus for a pre-defined time interval before taking some other fault mitigation actions such as disabling a feature. Thus it becomes very important to monitor a signal's age and detect any signal age fault, where a signal age fault is defined as the use of an older or default signal value for longer than or equal to the pre-defined time interval.
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