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Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Bench Test of a GT-Power Fast Running Model for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) Verification

2016-04-05
2016-01-0549
A GT-Power Fast Run Model simplified from detail model for HIL is verified with a bench test using the dSPACE Simulator. Firstly, the conversion process from a detailed model to FRM model is briefly described. Then, the spark timing, fuel pulse with control for FAR, and torque level control are developed for proof of concept. Moreover a series of FRM/Simulink co-simulation and HIL tests are conducted. In the summary, the test results are presented and compared with GT detailed model simulations. The test results show that the FRM/dSPACE HIL stays consistent in most variables of interest under 0.7-0.9 real-time factor condition between 1000 - 5000 RPM. The same steady-state can be reached by RCP controllers or with GT-Power internal controllers. The transient states are close using different control algorithm. The main purpose of HIL application is achieved, despite inconsistencies in performance data like fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Moving from Single-Core to Multicore: Initial Findings on a Fuel Injection Case Study

2016-04-05
2016-01-0017
Several application developers are currently faced with the problem of moving a complex system from a single-core to a multicore platform. The problem encompasses several issues that go from modeling issues (the need to represent the system features of interest with sufficient accuracy) to analysis and optimization techniques, to the selection of the right formulations for constraints that relate to time. We report on the initial findings in a case study in which the application of interest is a fuel injection system. We provide an analysis on the limitations of AUTOSAR and the existing modeling tools with respect to the representation of the parameters of interest for timing analysis, and we discuss applicable optimization methods and analysis algorithms.
Journal Article

Development of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System for 2016 Chevrolet Malibu

2016-04-05
2016-01-1169
GM has developed an all-new gasoline-electric hybrid powertrain for the model year 2016 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid vehicle, which was designed to achieve excellent fuel economy, performance, and drive quality. The powertrain shares the transmission architecture with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle, but includes changes to optimize the system for engine driven charge sustaining operation in the range of conditions represented by the US EPA 5 cycle fuel economy tests. In this paper, we describe the Malibu Hybrid propulsion system features and components, including the battery pack, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, engine, and thermal system. The modifications between the Volt and Malibu Hybrid propulsion systems are discussed and explained as resulting from the differences between the primarily electric and gasoline powered applications.
Journal Article

Adjoint-Driven Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on a Combination of Steady State and Transient Flow Solutions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1599
Aerodynamic vehicle design improvements require flow simulation driven iterative shape changes. The 3-D flow field simulations (CFD analysis) are not explicitly descriptive in providing the direction for aerodynamic shape changes (reducing drag force or increasing the down-force). In recent times, aerodynamic shape optimization using the adjoint method has been gaining more attention in the automotive industry. The traditional DOE (Design of Experiment) optimization method based on the shape parameters requires a large number of CFD flow simulations for obtaining design sensitivities of these shape parameters. The large number of CFD flow simulations can be significantly reduced if the adjoint method is applied. The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate and validate the adjoint method for vehicle aerodynamic shape improvements.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of Flame Kernel Formation Processes of Propane-Air Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0696
Fuel lean combustion and exhaust gas dilution are known to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce NOx emissions. In this study, experiments are performed to understand the effect of equivalence ratio on flame kernel formation and flame propagation around the spark plug for different low turbulent velocities. A series of experiments are carried out for propane-air mixtures to simulate engine-like conditions. For these experiments, equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.9 are tested with 20 percent mass-based exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Turbulence is generated by a shrouded fan design in the vicinity of J-spark plug. A closed loop feedback control system is used for the fan to generate a consistent flow field. The flow profile is characterized by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. High-speed Schlieren visualization is used for the spark formation and flame propagation.
Journal Article

Internal Combustion Engine - Automatic Transmission Matching for Next Generation Power Transfer Technology Development in Automotive Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1099
Development of the next generation internal combustion engines and automatic transmissions for automotive applications is a mandatory powertrain engineering activity required now and in the coming years to meet forthcoming global emissions regulations. This paper details a preliminary investigation into possible synergies for fuel consumption reduction considering emerging automotive technologies integrated into the next generation combustion engine and automatic transmission architectures. A range of hypothetical gasoline engines were created and paired with a generalized set of step gear automatic transmissions designed to meet the performance requirements of high volume longitudinal full size truck application. These designs were then run through a design of experiments orthogonal array for prediction of fuel consumption on the WLTP test schedule and stand still acceleration to 100 kph.
Journal Article

Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

2016-04-05
2016-01-0885
Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the veracity of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr.
Technical Paper

Application of CAEBAT Full Field Approach for a Liquid-Cooled Automotive Battery Pack

2016-04-05
2016-01-1217
The Computer-Aided Engineering of Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) Phase 1 project is a U.S. Department of Energy-funded, multi-year project which is aimed at developing a complete CAE tool set for the automotive battery pack design. This paper reports the application of the full field approach of the CAEBAT which is developed by the General Motors-led industry team, for a 24-cell liquid-cooled prototype battery pack. It also summarizes the verification of the approach by comparing the simulation results with the measurement data. The simulation results using the Full Field Approach are found to have a very good agreement with the measurement data.
Technical Paper

The GM RWD PHEV Propulsion System for the Cadillac CT6 Luxury Sedan

2016-04-05
2016-01-1159
This paper describes the capabilities of a new two-motor plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion system developed for rear wheel drive. The PHEV system comprises a 2.0L turbocharged 4-cylinder direct-injected gasoline engine with the new hybrid transmission [1], a new traction power inverter module, a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery pack, and on-board battery charger and 12V power converter module. The capability and features of the system components are described, and component performance and vehicle data are reported. The resulting propulsion system provides an excellent combination of electric-only driving, acceleration, and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Fast and Stable Quasi-Static Bending Simulations in LS-DYNA: Identification of Optimal Finite Element Model Parameters

2016-04-05
2016-01-1392
The quality of material model input files for finite element analysis (FEA) is a fundamental factor governing the fidelity and accuracy of simulations at a sub-system or a vehicle level, dictating an investment of due diligence in developing and validating the material models. Several material models conventionally employed for FEA typically allow accounting for only uniaxial tensile behavior of the material; however, the models may be required to predict component-level response in a complex loading scenario. Therefore in developing LSDYNA material input files for such models, it becomes critical to validate their performance in alternative loading scenarios. For out-ofplane loading, typically a three or four-point bending load-case is used for validation. Simulating three point bending (TPB), particularly in the quasi-static regime, requires detailed representation of the moving pin impacting the specimen, and sliding of the specimen on the stationary pins.
Technical Paper

Headliner Absorption Parameter Prediction and Modeling

2015-06-15
2015-01-2303
The headliner system in a vehicle is an important element in vehicle noise control. In order to predict the performance of the headliner, it is necessary to develop an understanding of the substrate performance, the effect of air gaps, and the contribution from any acoustic pads in the system. Current Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models for predicting absorption performance of acoustic absorbers are based on material Biot properties. However, the resources for material Biot property testing are limited and cost is high. In this paper, modeling parameters for the headliner substrate are identified from a set of standard absorption measurements on substrates, using curve fitting and optimization techniques. The parameters are then used together with thickness/design information in a SEA model to predict the vehicle headliner system absorption performance.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Performance Evaluation of Hood Liner Constructions

2015-06-15
2015-01-2206
In automotive noise control, the hood liner is an important acoustic part for mitigating engine noise. The random incidence absorption coefficient is used to quantify the component level acoustic performance. Generally, air gaps, type of substrate materials, density of the substrate materials and Air Flow Resistivity (AFR) of the cover scrim are the dominant control factors in the sound absorption performance. This paper describes a systematic experimental investigation of how these control factors affect flat sample performance. The first stage of this study is full factorial measurement based on current available solutions from sound absorber suppliers. The acoustic absorption of different hood liner constructions, with variations in materials, density, air gaps, and scrims was measured.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) on Passenger Cars to Improve Emission Robustness

2015-04-14
2015-01-1013
Emission compliance at the production level has been a challenge for vehicle manufacturers. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) plays a very important role in controlling the emissions for the diesel vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers tend to ‘over design’ the diesel oxidation catalyst to ‘absorb’ the production variations which seems an easier and faster solution. However this approach increases the DOC cost phenomenally which impacts the overall vehicle cost. The main objective of this paper is to address the high variation in CO tail pipe emissions which were observed on a diesel passenger car during development. This variation was posing a challenge in consistently meeting the internal product requirement/specification.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0459
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
Journal Article

Performance Characterization of Automatic Transmission Upshifts with Reduced Shift Times

2015-04-14
2015-01-1086
As the number of fixed gear ratios in automatic transmissions continues to increase in the pursuit of powertrain system efficiency, particular consideration must continue to be focused on optimizing the design for shifting performance. This investigation focuses on the effect of shift time on the performance attributes of shift quality, durability, on schedule fuel consumption and enablers to further reduce shift time. A review of fundamental design features that enable reduced shift times in both planetary and dual clutch transmissions is presented along with key operating features of both the transmission and engine/prime mover. A lumped parameter metric is proposed to assess and compare the upshift controllability of new transmission architectures and powerflows using simple analysis. The durability of fast shift times during performance maneuvers are quantified through calculation of shifting clutch energy and power from analysis and form measurements on a powertrain dynamometer.
Journal Article

Transmission Dynamic Modeling and Parametric NVH Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-1147
A new approach for modeling and analysis of a transmission and driveline system is proposed. By considering the stiffness, damping and inertias, model equations based on lumped parameters can be created through standard Lagrangian Mechanics techniques. A sensitivity analysis method has then been proposed on the eigenspace of the system characteristic equation to reveal the dynamic nature of a transmission and driveline system. The relative sensitivity calculated can clearly show the vibration modes of the system and the key contributing components. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated through the GM 6-speed RWD transmission by analyzing the dynamic nature of the driveline system. The results can provide a fundamental explanation of the vibration issue experienced and the solution adopted for the transmission.
Journal Article

Automatic Transmission Gear Ratio Optimization and Monte Carlo Simulation of Fuel Consumption with Parasitic Loss Uncertainty

2015-04-14
2015-01-1145
This investigation utilizes energy analysis and statistical methods to optimize step gear automatic transmissions gear selection for fuel consumption. A full factorial matrix of simulations using energy analysis was performed to determine the optimal number of gears and gear ratios that provide the best fuel consumption performance for a particular vehicle - engine application. The full factorial matrix setup as a design of experiment (DOE) was applied to five vehicle applications, each with two engines to examine the potential differences that variations in road load and engine characteristics might have on optimal transmission gearing selection. The transmission gearing options considered in the DOE were number of gears, launch gear ratio and top gear ratio. Final drive ratio was also included due to its global influence on vehicle performance and powertrain operating speeds and torque.
Journal Article

Chevrolet Volt Electric Utilization

2015-04-14
2015-01-1164
Evaluation of one year of in-use operating data from first generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) retail customers determined trip initial Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) starts were reduced by 70% relative to conventional vehicles under the same driving conditions. These Volt drivers were able to travel 74% of their total miles in EV without requiring the ICE's support. Using this first generation Volt data, performance of the second generation Volt is projected. The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) Regional Travel Survey (RTS) data set was also processed to make comparisons between realistic PHEV constraints and E-REV configurations. A Volt characteristic E-REV was found to provide up to 40 times more all-electric trips than a PHEV over the same data set.
Journal Article

FEA Development of Spot Weld Modeling with Fracture Forming Limit Diagram(FFLD) Failure Criteria and Its Application to Vehicle Body Structure

2015-04-14
2015-01-1316
Spot weld separation in vehicle development stage is one of the critical phenomena in structural analyses regarding quasi-static test condition, like roof strength or seat/belt pull. It directly reduces structural performance by losing connected load path and occasionally introduces tearing on surrounding sheet metals. Traditionally many efforts have been attempted to capture parent metal ductile fracture, but not applied to spot weld separations in automotive FEA simulations. [1,2,3] This paper introduces how to develop FFLD failure criteria from a series of parametric study on ultra high strength sheet steel and deals with failure criteria around spot weld and parent metal. Once the fracture strains for sheet steels are determined, those developed values were applied to traditional spot weld coupon FEA simulations and tests. Full vehicle level roof strength FEA simulations on a typical automotive body structure were performed and verified to the physical tests.
Journal Article

An Algorithm for Identification of Locally Optimal Basins in Large Dimensions on a Multi-Model Response Surface

2015-04-14
2015-01-0480
Response Surface Models are often used as a surrogate for expensive black-box functions during optimization to reduce computational cost. Often, the CAE analysis models are highly nonlinear and multi-modal. A response surface approximation of such analysis as a result is highly multi-modal; i.e. it contains multiple local optima. A gradient-based optimizer working with such a response surface will often converge to the nearest local optimum. There does not exist any method to guarantee a global optima for non-convex multi-modal functions. For such problems, we propose an efficient algorithm to find as many distinct local optima as possible. The proposed method is specifically designed to work in large dimensions (about 100 ∼ 1000 design variables and similar number of constraints) and can identify most of the locally optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time.
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