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Technical Paper

Making a Regional Belt Drive Rack Electric Power Steering System Global

2017-11-07
2017-36-0188
An actual trend in the automotive industry is to have global products in order to have economy of scale. This paper presents how a Belt Drive Rack EPS developed for the North American market had to be modified in order to be assembled in a Vehicle sold all around the world. Main technical challenges for achieving that goal were generated from different Architectures, whether electrical or mechanical, used in each vehicle, Packaging issues and Regional Requirements. Main features affected are Database Configuration, Electromagnetic Compatibility, Smooth Road Shake mitigation and Pull Compensation.
Technical Paper

A Study of Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female ATD Chest Accelerometers to Assess Sternum Compression Rate in Chest on Module Driver Out-of-Position Evaluations

2017-03-28
2017-01-1431
Driver out-of-position (OOP) tests were developed to evaluate the risk of inflation induced injury when the occupant is close to the airbag module during deployment. The Hybrid III 5th percentile female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) measures both sternum displacement and chest acceleration through a potentiometer and accelerometers, which can be used to calculate sternum compression rate. This paper documents a study evaluating the chest accelerometers to assess punch-out loading of the chest during this test configuration. The study included ATD mechanical loading and instrumentation review. Finite element analysis was conducted using a Hybrid III - 5th percentile female ATD correlated to testing. The correlated restraint model was utilized with a Hybrid III - 50th percentile male ATD. A 50th percentile male Global Human Body Model (HBM) was then applied for enhanced anatomical review.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Film Characteristics of Ethanol Impinging Spray at Ultra-Low Temperature

2017-03-28
2017-01-0851
Increasing the injection pressure in DISI engine is an efficient way to obtain finer droplets but it will also potentially cause spray impingement on the cylinder wall and piston. Consequently, the fuel film sticking on the wall can dramatically increase the soot emission of the engine especially in a cold start condition. On the other hand, ethanol is widely used as an alternative fuel in DI engine due to its sustainable nature and high octane number. In this study, the fuel film characteristics of single-plume ethanol impinging spray was investigated. The experiments were performed under ultra-low fuel/plate temperature to simulate the cold start condition in cold areas. A low temperature thermostatic bath combined with specially designed heat exchangers were used to achieve ultra-low temperature for both the impinging plate and the fuel. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique was employed to measure the thickness of fuel film deposited on the impinging plate.
Technical Paper

Trivial Principal Component Analysis (TPCA): An Improved Modeling Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0220
Trivial Principal Component method (TPC) was developed recently to model a system based on measured data. It is a statistical method that utilizes Eigen-pairs of covariance matrix obtained from the measured data. It determines linear coefficients of a model by using the trivial eigenvector corresponding to the least eigenvalue. In general, linear modeling accuracy depends on the strength of nonlinearity and interaction terms as well as measurement error. In this paper, the TPC method is extended to analyze residual (error) vector to identify significant higher order and interaction terms that contribute to the modeling error. Subsequently, these additional terms are included for constructing a robust system model. Also, an iterative TPC analysis is proposed for the first time to correct the model gradually till the least eigenvalue becomes minimum.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Health Ready Components-Unlocking the Potential of IVHM

2016-04-05
2016-01-0075
Health Ready Components are essential to unlocking the potential of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) as it relates to real-time diagnosis and prognosis in order to achieve lower maintenance costs, greater asset availability, reliability and safety. IVHM results in reduced maintenance costs by providing more accurate fault isolation and repair guidance. IVHM results in greater asset availability, reliability and safety by recommending preventative maintenance and by identifying anomalous behavior indicative of degraded functionality prior to detection of the fault by other detection mechanisms. The cost, complexity and effectiveness of the IVHM system design, deployment and support depend, to a great extent, on the degree to which components and subsystems provide the run-time data needed by IVHM and the design time semantic data to allow IVHM to interpret those messages.
Journal Article

Engine Diagnostics Using Acoustic Emissions Sensors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0639
Engine acoustics measured by microphones near the engine have been used in controlled laboratory settings for combustion feedback and even combustion phasing control, but the use of these techniques in a vehicle where many other noise sources exist is problematic. In this study, surface-mounted acoustic emissions sensors are embedded in the block of a 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine, and the signal is analyzed to identify useful feedback features. The use of acoustic emissions sensors, which have a very high frequency response and are commonly used for detecting material failures for health monitoring, including detecting gear pitting and ring scuffing on test stands, enables detection of acoustics both within the range of human hearing and in the ultrasonic spectrum. The high-speed acoustic time-domain data are synchronized with the crank-angle-domain combustion data to investigate the acoustic emissions response caused by various engine events.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Approach to Requirements Development and Hazard Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-0274
The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, testing, production, or even later, when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform a hazard analysis in parallel with system and requirements development. The proposed model-based technique begins during early development when design uncertainty is highest and is refined iteratively as development progresses to drive the requirements and necessary design features.
Technical Paper

Dry Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) Thermal Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-1144
Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCT) for passenger cars are being developed by OEMs and suppliers. The driving force is the improvement in fuel economy available from manual transmissions together with the comfort of automatic transmissions. A dry clutch system (dDCT) is currently the subject of research, development, and production implementation. One of the key issues in the development of a dDCT is clutch durability. In dry clutches with current linings, above a critical temperature, the friction system starts to suffer permanent damage. In addition, the clutch friction characteristics are a function of the clutch interface temperature. Because a reliable, low-cost temperature sensor is not available for this application, the clutch control engineers rely on a good thermal model to estimate the temperature of the clutches. A thermal model was developed for dry dual clutch transmissions to predict operating temperature of both pressure and center plates during all maneuvers.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' High-Efficiency Range Extender Ecotec Small Gas Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1272
General Motors has developed an all-new Ecotec 1.5 L range extender engine for use in the 2016 next generation Voltec propulsion system. This engine is part of a new Ecotec family of small displacement gasoline engines introduced in the 2015 model year. Major enhancements over the range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system include the adoption of direct injection (DI), cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high 12.5:1 geometric compression ratio (CR). Additional enhancements include the adoption of high-authority phasers on both the intake and exhaust camshafts, and an integrated exhaust manifold (IEM). The combination of DI with cooled EGR has enabled significant thermal efficiency gains over the 1.4 L range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system at high engine loads.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Close-Coupled Pilot Injections to Reduce Combustion Noise in a Small-Bore Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0796
A pilot-main injection strategy is investigated for a part-load operating point in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine. As the energizing dwell between the pilot and main injections decreases below 200 μs, combustion noise reaches a minimum and a reduction of 3 dB is possible. This decrease in combustion noise is achieved without increased pollutant emissions. Injection schedules employed in the engine are analyzed with an injection analyzer to provide injection rates for each dwell tested. Two distinct injection events are observed even at the shortest dwell tested; rate shaping of the main injection occurs as the dwell is adjusted. High-speed elastic scattering imaging of liquid fuel is performed in the engine to examine initial liquid penetration rates.
Journal Article

Performance Characterization of a Triple Input Clutch, Layshaft Automatic Transmission Using Energy Analysis

2013-12-15
2013-01-9042
This paper details the design and operating attributes of a triple input clutch, layshaft automatic transmission (TCT) with a torque converter in a rear wheel drive passenger vehicle. The objectives of the TCT design are to reduce fuel consumption while increasing acceleration performance through the design of the gearing arrangement, shift actuation system and selection of gear ratios and progression. A systematic comparison of an 8-speed TCT design is made against a hypothetical 8-speed planetary automatic transmission (AT) with torque converter using an energy analysis model based upon empirical data and first principles of vehicle-powertrain systems. It was found that the 8-speed TCT design has the potential to provide an approximate 3% reduction in fuel consumption, a 3% decrease in 0-100 kph time and 30% reduction in energy loss relative to a comparable 8-speed planetary AT with an idealized logarithmic ratio progression.
Technical Paper

A Comparison New Car Assessment Program NCAP Requirements and Procedures Around the World

2013-10-07
2013-36-0499
The New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), introduced in 1979 by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, is a vehicle safety rating system that conducts crash test and provides motoring consumers with an assessment of the safety performance of new cars. Similar programs were then developed around the world, initially for Europe (EuroNCAP), Australia (ANCAP), Japan (JNCAP), China (CNCAP) and Korea (KNCAP). NCAP most recently reached Latin America (LatinNCAP) and Southeast Asia (AseanNCAP). Although the roots are similar, many NCAP programs have significant differences on the test procedures and rating schemes. This paper is a comparative analysis of the recent NCAP protocols to highlight the most important technical differences.
Technical Paper

Driver Visibility: Customer Insights and Metric Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1029
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in driver visibility. This is, in part, due to increasing emphasis placed on design factors influencing visibility such as: aerodynamics, styling, structural stiffness and vehicle packaging. During the development process of a vehicle, it is important to be able to quantify all of these factors. Visibility, however, owing to its sensory nature, has been harder to quantify. As a result, General Motors (GM) has undertaken a study to gain deeper insight into customer perceptions surrounding visibility. Clinics were conducted to help determine the relative importance of different metrics. The paper also explores several new metrics that can help predict customer satisfaction based on vehicle configuration.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Correlation/Validation of Hot-Soak Terminal Temperature of a Vehicle Cabin CFD Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0854
A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) statistical approach is presented in this report to correlate a CFD cabin model with test results. The target is the volume-averaged hot-soak terminal temperature. The objective is to develop an effective correlation process for a simplified CFD cabin model so it can be used in practical design process. It is, however, not the objective in this report to develop the most accurate CFD cabin model that would be too expensive computationally at present to be used in routine design analysis. A 3-D CFD model of a vehicle cabin is the central part of the computer modeling in the development of automotive HVAC systems. Hot-soak terminal temperature is a thermal phenomenon in the cabin of a parked vehicle under the Sun when the overall heat transfer reaches equilibrium. It is often part of the simulation of HVAC system operation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Impact of Grille Opening and Engine Cooling Fan Power on a Mid-Size Sedan

2013-04-08
2013-01-0857
This paper investigates changes in fuel economy of a mid-size sedan at various engine cooling fan power levels and front grille opening areas. A full vehicle model was built using MATLAB Simulink to calculate the fuel economy (MPG). The model utilized inputs from aerodynamic wind tunnel testing as well as FTP and MVEG dynamometer tests results. Simulation and testing was carried out at three front opening areas and three engine cooling fan power levels. The results provide a guideline for optimizing the front grille opening vs. engine cooling fan power combination at various driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Cellulosic Ethanol Fuel Quality Evaluation and its Effects on PFI Intake Valve Deposits and GDI Fuel Injector Plugging Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0885
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) mandates the use of advanced renewable fuels such as cellulosic ethanol to be blended into gasoline in the near future. As such, determining the impact of these new fuel blends on vehicle performance is important. Therefore, General Motors conducted engine dynamometer evaluations on the impact of cellulosic ethanol blends on port fuel injected (PFI) intake valve deposits and gasoline direct injected (GDI) fuel injector plugging. Chemical analysis of the test fuels was also conducted and presented to support the interpretation of the engine results. The chemical analyses included an evaluation of the specified fuel parameters listed in ASTM International's D4806 denatured fuel ethanol specification as well as GC/MS hydrocarbon speciations to help identify any trace level contaminant species from the new ethanol production processes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0896
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling and Effectiveness Recovery

2013-04-08
2013-01-0533
Diesel engine developers are continually striving to reduce harmful NOx emissions through various calibration and hardware strategies. One strategy being implemented in production Diesel engines involves utilizing cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Although there is a significant NOx reduction potential by utilizing cooled EGR, there are also several issues associated with it, such as EGR cooler fouling and a reduction in cooler effectiveness that can occur over time. The exact cause of these issues and many others related to cooler fouling are not clearly understood. One such unanswered issue or phenomenon that has been observed in both field tested and lab tested EGR coolers is that of a recovery in EGR cooler effectiveness after a shutdown or after cycling between various conditions.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of Condensation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

2013-04-08
2013-01-0540
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to control engine-out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls. In this study, condensation of water vapor and hydrocarbons at the exit of the EGR cooler was visualized using a fiberscope coupled to a camera equipped with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) color sensor. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to produce a range of engine-out hydrocarbon concentrations. Both surface and bulk gas condensation were observed with the visualization setup over a range of EGR cooler coolant temperatures.
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