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Technical Paper

Making a Regional Belt Drive Rack Electric Power Steering System Global

2017-11-07
2017-36-0188
An actual trend in the automotive industry is to have global products in order to have economy of scale. This paper presents how a Belt Drive Rack EPS developed for the North American market had to be modified in order to be assembled in a Vehicle sold all around the world. Main technical challenges for achieving that goal were generated from different Architectures, whether electrical or mechanical, used in each vehicle, Packaging issues and Regional Requirements. Main features affected are Database Configuration, Electromagnetic Compatibility, Smooth Road Shake mitigation and Pull Compensation.
Technical Paper

Driver Visibility: Customer Insights and Metric Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1029
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in driver visibility. This is, in part, due to increasing emphasis placed on design factors influencing visibility such as: aerodynamics, styling, structural stiffness and vehicle packaging. During the development process of a vehicle, it is important to be able to quantify all of these factors. Visibility, however, owing to its sensory nature, has been harder to quantify. As a result, General Motors (GM) has undertaken a study to gain deeper insight into customer perceptions surrounding visibility. Clinics were conducted to help determine the relative importance of different metrics. The paper also explores several new metrics that can help predict customer satisfaction based on vehicle configuration.
Journal Article

Effect of Temperature and Aeration on Fluid-Elastomer Compatibility

2013-04-08
2013-01-0652
To investigate the effect of aeration on fluid-elastomer compatibility, 4 types of elastomers were aged in three gear lubes. The four types of elastomers include a production fluorinated rubber (FKM) and production hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) mixed by the part fabricator, a standard low temperature flexible fluorinated rubber (FKM, ES-4) and a standard ethylene-acrylic copolymer (AEM, ES-7) mixed by SAE J2643 approved rubber mixer. The three gear lubes are Fluid a, Fluid b and Fluid c, where Fluid b is a modified Fluid with additional friction modifier, and Fluid c is friction modified chemistry from a different additive supplier. The aeration effect tests were performed at 125°C for 504 hours. The aerated fluid aging test was performed by introducing air into fluid aging tubes as described in General Motors Company Materials Specification GMW16445, Appendix B, side-by-side with a standard ASTM D471 test.
Technical Paper

Technical Challenges in Future Electrical Architectures

2011-04-12
2011-01-1021
As part of standardizing the global portfolio, General Motors (GM) created an electrical architecture that will support the GM global product feature set. Introduced in 2009, this common electrical architecture is already being applied to multiple platforms in GM's regional engineering centers. The electrical architecture will be updated regularly to address the needs of new features in the automotive market and to take advantage of the latest technology advancements. The functional requirements of these new features result in technology challenges. In addition, many new features may result in challenges to the vehicle electrical architecture or the vehicle development process. The challenges have been evaluated so that needs and initiatives can be better understood.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Exhaust System Design To Minimize Shipping Costs

2011-04-12
2011-01-1256
The design of an existing GM exhaust system is analyzed for possible design modifications that may result in lower shipping costs between the supplier facility that manufactures the exhaust system and the assembly plant that installs the system. Investment, changes in piece cost, and other factors are examined in order to determine design changes based upon a rate of return on the investment.
Technical Paper

Modeling Dynamic Stiffness of Rubber Isolators

2011-04-12
2011-01-0492
Rubber isolators and bushings are very important components for vehicle performance. However, one often finds it is difficult to get the dynamic properties to be readily used in CAE analysis, either from suppliers or from OEM's own test labs. In this paper, the author provides an analytical method to obtain the dynamic stiffness of an exhaust isolator, using ABAQUS and iSight, with tested or targeted isolator static stiffness information. The analysis contains two steps. The first step is to select the (rubber/EPDM) material properties for the FE isolator model by matching the static stiffness with either the targeted spring rate (linear or nonlinear) or the (tested) load / deflection curve. The second step is to perform dynamic analysis on the statically “validated” FE isolator model to obtain its dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Method and System for Determining the Location of a Lost Vehicle Key Fob

2011-04-12
2011-01-0044
Key fobs, also known as remote keys or remote transmitters, have become a common piece of equipment in today's vehicle, being ubiquitous in every market segment. Once limited to remote locking and unlocking operations, today's key fobs can be used to control many comfort and security features beyond locking and unlocking, such as alarm system operation, vehicle locate, approach lighting, memory seat recall, and remote starting systems. Key fobs are designed to be easy to use as well as easy to carry and transport in personal containers, such as purses, pockets, wallets, and the like. Accordingly, as with other personal effects, key fobs and other portable remote devices can be lost or misplaced or can be otherwise difficult to find. Even with careful tracking of a remote device, children and pets, among other factors, can make location difficult. Moreover, multiple remote devices are often distributed with each vehicle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of NOx Reduction by Passive Ammonia-SCR for Stoichiometric SIDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0307
As vehicle fuel economy requirements continue to increase it is becoming more challenging and expensive to simultaneously improve fuel consumption and meet emissions regulations. The Passive Ammonia SCR System (PASS) is a novel aftertreatment concept which has the potential to address NOx emissions with application to both lean SI and stoichiometric SI engines. PASS relies on an underfloor (U/F) SCR for storage of ammonia which is generated by the close-coupled (CC) TWCs. For lean SI engines, it is required to operate with occasional rich pulses in order to generate the ammonia, while for stoichiometric application ammonia is passively generated through the toggling of air/fuel ratio. PASS serves as an efficient and cost-effective enhancement to standard aftertreatment systems. For this study, the PASS concept was demonstrated first using lab reactor results which highlight the oxygen tolerance and temperature requirements of the SCR.
Journal Article

Development of Additional SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers

2011-04-12
2011-01-0017
The first set of SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers (SRE) was developed in 2004. It was composed of a group of 10 compounds covering multiple elastomer families. Since then, more advanced materials from many elastomer families have been introduced to the automotive industry. The purpose of this study is to add a few more reference compounds to SAE J2643, to enhance the portfolio on FKM, AEM and ACM to reflect advancements in elastomer technology, and make it suitable for a variety of fluids, such as transmission fluid and engine oil. Fourteen standard elastomer compounds were involved in this study, covering various materials currently used in automotive powertrain static and dynamic sealing applications. Participants include OEMs, major rubber manufacturers, a fluid additive company and an independent lab. Manufacturers of each test compound provided formulations, designated ingredients from defined sources, and detailed mixing and molding procedures.
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