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Technical Paper

Biomechanical Analysis of Indy Race Car Crashes

1998-11-02
983161
This paper describes the results of an ongoing project in the GM Motorsports Safety Technology Research Program to investigate Indianapolis-type (Indy car) race car crashes using an on-board impact recorder as the primary data collection tool. The paper discusses the development of specifications for the impact-recording device, the selection of the specific recorder and its implementation on a routine basis in Indy car racing. The results from incidents that produced significant data (crashes with peak decelerations above 20 G) during the racing seasons from 1993 through the first half of 1998 are summarized. The focus on Indy car crashes has proven to provide an almost laboratory-like setting due to the similarity of the cars and to the relative simplicity of the crashes (predominantly planar crashes involving single car impacts against well-defined impact surfaces).
Technical Paper

Development of Skin Thermal Transducer for Automotive Applications

1997-05-19
971855
This paper summarizes the design, development, fabrication, validation, and application of a new device called the Skin Thermal Transducer (STT). The development of this instrument was driven by the demand for reliable information on human skin temperatures during contact with a warm surface on the interior of an automobile. The primary technology that enabled the development of the STT was the thermo-electric cooler (TEC) in combination with a heat sink that is used to simulate the core temperature of the human body. The STT was validated with human skin data and the agreement was within an acceptable range. The STT provides the automotive engineer with a measuring device to optimize and validate the underbody regions of the vehicle with respect to occupant thermal comfort. The STT can also be applied to optimize other automotive and non-automotive products in which the human skin touches a warm surface.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Hybrid III Dummy Interactions with Air Bag in Frontal Crash by Finite Element Simulation

1995-11-01
952705
A deformable finite element dummy model was used to simulate air bag interaction with in-position passenger side occupants in frontal vehicle crash. This dummy model closely simulates the Hybrid III hardware with respect to geometry, mass, and material properties. Test data was used to evaluate the validity of the model. The calculated femur loads, chest acceleration and head acceleration were in good agreement with the test data. A semi-rigid dummy model (with rigid chest) was derived from the deformable dummy to improve turnaround time. Simulation results using the semi-rigid dummy model were also in reasonable agreement with the test data. For comparison purpose, simulations were also performed using PAMCVS, a hybrid code which couples the finite element code PAMCRASH with the rigid body occupant code. The deformable dummy model predicted better chest acceleration than the other two models.
Technical Paper

Biofidelity and Injury Assessment in Eurosid I and Biosid

1995-11-01
952731
Side impact pendulum tests were conducted on Eurosid I and Biosid to assess the biofidelity of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and determine injury tolerance levels. Each body region was impacted at 4.5, 6.7, and 9.4 m/s using test conditions which duplicate cadaver impacts with a 15 cm flat-circular 23.4 kg rigid mass. The cadaver database establishes human response and injury risk assessment in side impact. Both dummies showed better biofidelity when compared to the lowest-speed cadaver response corridor. At higher speeds, peak force was substantially higher. The average peak contact force was 1.56 times greater in Biosid and 2.19 times greater in Eurosid 1 than the average cadaver response. The Eurosid I abdomen had the most dissimilar response and lacks biofidelity. Overall, Biosid has better biofidelity than Eurosid I with an average 21% lower peak load and a closer match to the duration of cadaver impact responses for the three body regions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Limiting Shoulder Belt Load with Air Bag Restraint

1995-02-01
950886
The dilemma of using a shoulder belt force limiter with a 3-point belt system is selecting a limit load that will balance the reduced risk of significant thoracic injury due to the shoulder belt loading of the chest against the increased risk of significant head injury due to the greater upper torso motion allowed by the shoulder belt load limiter. However, with the use of air bags, this dilemma is more manageable since it only occurs for non-deploy accidents where the risk of significant head injury is low even for the unbelted occupant. A study was done using a validated occupant dynamics model of the Hybrid III dummy to investigate the effects that a prescribed set of shoulder belt force limits had on head and thoracic responses for 48 and 56 km/h barrier simulations with driver air bag deployment and for threshold crash severity simulations with no air bag deployment.
Technical Paper

The General Motors Driving Simulator

1994-03-01
940179
A driving simulator development project at the Systems Engineering and Technical Process Center (SE/TP) is exploring the role of driving simulation in the vehicle design process. The simulator provides two vehicle mockup testing arenas that support a wide field of view, computer-generated image of the road scene which dynamically responds to driver commands as a function of programmable vehicle model parameters. Two unique aspects of the simulator are the fast 65 ms response time and low incidence rate of simulator induced syndrome (about 5%). Preliminary model validation results and data comparing driver performance in a vehicle vs. the simulator indicate accurate handling response dynamics within the on-center handling region (<0.3g lateral acceleration). Applications have included supporting the development of new steering system concepts, as well as evaluating the usability of vehicle controls and displays.
Technical Paper

Brain Injury Risk Assessment of Frontal Crash Test Results

1994-03-01
941056
An objective, biomechanically based assessment is made of the risks of life-threatening brain injury of frontal crash test results. Published 15 ms HIC values for driver and right front passenger dummies of frontal barrier crash tests conducted by Transport Canada and NHTSA are analyzed using the brain injury risk curve of Prasad and Mertz. Ninety-four percent of the occupants involved in the 30 mph, frontal barrier compliance tests had risks of life-threatening brain injury less than 5 percent. Only 3 percent had risks greater than 16 percent which corresponds to 15 ms HIC > 1000. For belt restrained occupants without head contact with the interior, the risks of life-threatening brain injury were less than 2 percent. In contrast, for the more severe NCAP test condition, 27 percent of the drivers and 21 percent of the passengers had life-threatening brain injury risks greater than 16 percent.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Air Bag Deployment Loads with the Small Female Hybrid III Dummy

1993-11-01
933119
This study is an extension of previous work on driver air bag deployment loads which used the mid-size male Hybrid Ill dummy. Both small female and mid-size male Hybrid Ill dummies were tested with a range of near-positions relative to the air bag module. These alignments ranged from the head centered on the module to the chest centered on the module and with various separations and lateral shifts from the module. For both sized dummies the severity of the loading from the air bag depended on alignment and separation of the dummy with respect to the air bag module. No single alignment provided high responses for all body regions, indicating that one test at a typical alignment cannot simultaneously determine the potential for injury risk for the head, neck, and torso. Based on comparisons with their respective injury assessment reference values, the risk of chest injury appeared similar for both sized dummies.
Technical Paper

Rollover and Drop Tests - The Influence of Roof Strength on Injury Mechanics Using Belted Dummies

1990-10-01
902314
This report presents the test methods and results of a study involving lap/shoulder belted dummies in dynamic dolly rollover tests and inverted vehicle drop tests. Data are presented showing dummy neck loadings resulting from head impacts to the vehicle interior as the vehicle contacts the ground. Comparison of the number and magnitude of axial neckloads are presented for rollcaged and production vehicles, as well as an analysis of the factors which influence neckloads under these conditions.
Technical Paper

Size, Weight and Biomechanical Impact Response Requirements for Adult Size Small Female and Large Male Dummies

1989-02-01
890756
This paper summarizes the rationale used to specify the geometric, inertial and impact response requirements for a small adult female dummy and a large adult male dummy with impact biofidelity and measurement capacity comparable to the Hybrid III dummy, the most advanced midsize adult male dummy. Body segment lengths and weights for these two dummies were based on the latest anthropometry studies for the extremes of the U.S.A. adult population. Other characteristic body segment dimensions were calculated from geometric and mass scaling relationships that assured that each body segment had the same mass density as the corresponding body segment of the Hybrid III dummy. The biomechanical impact response requirements for the head, neck, chest and knee of the Hybrid III dummy were scaled to give corresponding biomechanical impact response requirements for each dummy.
Technical Paper

Describing the Truck Driver Stomach and Shin-Knee Accommodation Tools

1987-08-01
871532
Truck driver shin-knee and stomach postion tools have been developed to describe where certain percentages of truck drivers position there knees and stomachs in various workspace arrangements. Separate equations describe the accommodation level for driver populations with male to female ratios of 50/50, 75/25, and a range from 90/10 to 95/5. These equations can be used as a design tool to locate the curves in vehicle space to describe the region behind which the given populations shin-knees, and stomachs would be located. Equations and curves are provided for both the left leg, which operates the clutch, and the right leg, which operates the accelerator.
Technical Paper

Results of the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Component and Full-Vehicle Side Impact Test Procedure Evaluation Program

1985-01-01
856087
This paper presents an extensive research program undertaken to develop improved side impact test methods. The development of a component side impact test device along with an associated test procedure are reviewed. The results of accident data analysis techniques to define anatomical areas most likely to be injured during side impact and definition of test device response corridors based on human surrogate testing conducted by the Association Peugeot/Renault and the University of Heidelberg are discussed. The relationship of response corridors and accident data analysis in earlier phases of the project resulted in definition and development of a component side impact test device to represent the human thorax. A test program to evaluate and compare component and full-vehicle test results is presented.
Technical Paper

Cervical Spine Injury Mechanisms

1983-10-17
831616
A test series using eight unembalmed cadavers was conducted to investigate factors affecting the creation of cervical spine damage from impact to the crown of the head. The crown impact was accomplished by a free-fall drop of the test subject onto a load plate. The load plate striking surface was covered with padding to vary the contact force time characteristics. The orientations of the head, cervical spine, and torso were adjusted relative to a laboratory coordinate system to investigate the effects of head and spinal configuration on the damage patterns. Load and acceleration data are presented as a function of time and as a function of frequency in the form of mechanical impedance.
Technical Paper

Responses of Animals Exposed to Deployment of Various Passenger Inflatable Restraint System Concepts for a Variety of Collision Severities and Animal Positions

1982-01-01
826047
This paper summarizes the results of tests conducted with anesthetized animals that were exposed to a wide range of passenger inflatable restraint cushion forces for a variety of impact sled - simulated accident conditions. The test configurations and inflatable restraint system concepts were selected to produce a broad spectrum of injury types and severities to the major organs of the head, neck and torso of the animals. These data were needed to interpret the significance of the responses of an instrumented child dummy that was being used to evaluate child injury potential of the passenger inflatable restraint system being developed by General Motors Corporation. Injuries ranging from no injury to fatal were observed for the head, neck and abdomen regions. Thoracic injuries ranged from no injury to critical, survival uncertain.
Technical Paper

Interpretations of the Impact Responses of a 3-Year-Old Child Dummy Relative to Child Injury Potential

1982-01-01
826048
An analysis is presented that was used to interpret the significance of response measurements made with a specially instrumented, 3-year-old child dummy that was used to evaluate child injury potential of the second-generation, passenger inflatable restraint system that was being developed by General Motors Corporation. Anesthetized animals and a specially instrumented child dummy, both 3-year-old child surrogates, were exposed to similar inflating-cushion, simulated collision environments. The exposure environments were chosen to produce a wide spectrum of animal injury types and severities, and a corresponding broad range of child dummy responses. For a given exposure environment, the animal injury severity ratings for the head, neck, thorax and abdomen are paired with dummy response values corresponding to these body regions.
Technical Paper

General Motors Passenger Tire Performance Criteria

1976-02-01
762008
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the process of selection, development and approval of General Motors original equipment TPC passenger car tires. We have attempted to minimize detail in each specific area, but intend to provide a general comprehension of the thought processes involved and the procedures used to select the proper tire size and type for a vehicle. We will then describe the tire performance criteria involved in the overall development and approval process and will subsequently consider tire noise requirements in somewhat greater detail. The paper will conclude by describing the General Motors Tire Performance Criteria (TPC) System, which is a documentation of the General Motors Tire Performance requirements and test procedures.
Technical Paper

Vehicular Radar Speedometer

1973-02-01
730125
Certain problems associated with conventional vehicular speed sensing, such as wheel slip, wheel lock, and variable rolling radius, can be alleviated by employing microwave speed sensing. It is expected that true speed sensing will augment a number of automotive and other ground transportation applications. An experimental, two-horn, 55 GHz continuous wave radar speedometer designed to measure true ground speed in the presence of vehicular perturbations is described; the system has an ultimate design frequency of 60 GHz. An Impatt diode, solid-state transmitter was incorporated in this design because of its inherent advantages. The RF portion of the transmitter-receiver unit, including the dipole feed, is housed on a single microstrip circuit on an alumina substrate 1/2 X 1/4 in (12.7 X 6.35 mm). Vertically polarized beams incident at angles of 35 deg with respect to the horizontal system were chosen as a design compromise.
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