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Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Journal Article

Signal Processing for Rough Road Detection

Misfire diagnostics are required to detect missed combustion events which may cause an increase in emissions and a reduction in performance and fuel economy. If the misfire detection system is based on crankshaft speed measurement, driveline torque variations due to rough road can hinder the diagnosis of misfire. A common method of rough road detection uses the ABS (Anti-Lock Braking System) module to process wheel speed sensor data. This leads to multiple integration issues including complexities in interacting with multiple suppliers, inapplicability in certain markets and lower reliability of wheel speed sensors. This paper describes novel rough road detection concepts based on signal processing and statistical analysis without using wheel speed sensors. These include engine crankshaft and Transmission Output Speed (TOS) sensing information. Algorithms that combine adaptive signal processing and specific statistical analysis of this information are presented.
Technical Paper

Lead-time Reduction in Stamping CAE and Die Face Development using Massively Parallel Processing in Forming Simulations

Since 1997, General Motors Body Manufacturing Engineering - Die Engineering Services (BME-DES) has been working jointly with our software vendor to develop and implement a parallel version of stamping simulation software for mass production analysis applications. The evolution of this technology and the insight gained through the implementation of DMP/MPP technology as well as performance benchmarks are discussed in this publication.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Hydraulic Braking Traction Control for the 2003 Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick

The development and application of a traction control Kodiak and GMC TopKick are explained. Most traction systems use engine management to enable traction control, while the adaptive braking system can provide traction assist for either gas or Diesel powered vehicles from 14,000 lbs. to 33,000 lbs. GVW. The performance driven criteria that established the design requirements and the development of a new product to meet these objectives are discussed. Both the vehicle manufacturer and the traction controller supplier provided these criteria. The basic ABS and traction control hydraulic schematics will be described as they apply to the vehicles. The results of the development program will be compared to the criteria used to establish the goals, and the benefits of the traction control system will be discussed.

IDB-C Data Bus

By using descriptive charts and graphs, this report provides an analysis of the IDB-C network at the Subsystem level and at the vehicle level, using data comparison between modeling and simulation of the network and measurement and analysis on physical systems.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stress Correlation and Modeling of Driveline Bending Integrity for 4WD Sport Utility Vehicles

Reducing the high cost of hardware testing with analytical methods has been highly accelerated in the automotive industry. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline bending integrity test for the longitudinal 4WD-driveline configuration. The dynamic stresses produced in the adapter/transfer case and propeller shaft can be predicted analytically using this model. Particularly, when the 4WD powertrain experiences its structural bending during the operation speed and the propeller shaft experiences the critical whirl motion and its structural bending due to the inherent imbalance. For a 4WD-Powertrain application, the dynamic coupling effect of a flexible powertrain with a flexible propeller shaft is significant and demonstrated in this paper. Three major subsystems are modeled in this analytical model, namely the powertrain, the final rear drive, and the propeller shafts.
Technical Paper

Daytime Running Lights (Drls)-A North American Success Story

Many traffic collisions are the result of the driver's failure to notice the other vehicle. It is often cited in police reports that the driver "looked but did not see.'' The purpose of Daytime Running Lights (DRLs) is to increase the visual contrast of DRL-equipped vehicles. Visual contrast, which is the difference in brightness between two areas, is an important characteristic enabling a driver to detect objects. This paper begins with a brief regulatory history of DRLs in the U.S. and how General Motors Corporation (GM) introduced DRL-equipped vehicles. It also describes a DRL effectiveness study conducted by Exponent Failure Analysis Associates of San Francisco for General Motors Corporation. The study compared the collision rates of specific General Motors Corporation, Saab, Volvo and Volkswagen vehicles before and immediately after the introduction of DRLs. Since DRLs are not visible from behind a vehicle, rear-end collisions were not included in the study.
Technical Paper

2002 Pontiac Montana Frequency Improvements Employing Structural Foam

This paper documents a joint development process between General Motors and Dow Automotive to improve primary body structure frequencies on the GM family of midsize vans by utilizing cavity-filling structural foam. Optimum foam locations, foam quantity, and foam density within the body structure were determined by employing both math-based modeling and vehicle hardware testing techniques. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the Body-In-White (BIW) and “trimmed body” were used to predict the global body structure modes and associated resonant frequencies with and without structural foam. The objective of the FEA activity was to quantify frequency improvements to the primary body structure modes of matchboxing, bending, and torsion when using structural foam. Comprehensive hardware testing on the vehicle was also executed to validate the frequency improvements observed in the FEA results.
Technical Paper

Performance of Coatings for Underbody Structural Components

The Auto/Steel Partnership established the Light Truck Frame Project Group in 1996 with two objectives: (a) to develop materials, design and fabrication knowledge that would enable the frames on North American OEM (original equipment manufacturer) light trucks to be reduced in weight, and (b) to improve corrosion resistance of frames on these vehicles, thereby allowing a reduction in the thickness of the components and a reduction in frame weight. To address the issues relating to corrosion, a subgroup of the Light Truck Frame Project Group was formed. The group comprised representatives from the North American automotive companies, test laboratories, frame manufacturers, and steel producers. As part of a comprehensive test program, the Corrosion Subgroup has completed tests on frame coatings. Using coated panels of a low carbon hot rolled and pickled steel sheet and two types of accelerated cyclic corrosion tests, seven frame coatings were tested for corrosion performance.
Technical Paper

Automotive A/C System Integrated with Electrically-Controlled Variable Capacity Scroll Compressor and Fuzzy Logic Refrigerant Flow Management

This paper describes the recent efforts on developing an automotive climate control system throughout integrating an electrically-controlled variable capacity scroll compressor with a fuzzy logic control-based refrigerant flow management. Applying electrically-controlled variable capacity compressor technology to climate control systems has a significant impact on improving vehicle fuel economy, achieving higher passenger comfort level, and extending air and refrigerant temperature controllability as well. In this regard, it is very important for automotive climate control engineers to layout a system-level temperature control strategy so that the operation of variable capacity compressor can be optimized through integrating the component control schemes into the system-level temperature control. Electronically controlled expansion devices have become widely available in automotive air conditioning (A/C) systems for the future vehicle applications(1, 2, 3 and 4).
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Analysis by Finite Elements

An approximate analysis method for brake squeal is presented. Using MSC/NASTRAN a geometric nonlinear solution is run using a friction stiffness matrix to model the contact between the pad and rotor. The friction coefficient can be pressure dependent. Next, linearized complex modes are found where the interface is set in a slip condition. Since the entire interface is set sliding, it produces the maximum friction work possible during the vibration. It is a conservative measure for stability evaluation. An averaged friction coefficient is measured and used during squeal. Dynamically unstable modes are found during squeal. They are due to friction coupling of neighboring modes. When these modes are decoupled, they are stabilized and squeal is eliminated. Good correlation with experimental results is shown. It will be shown that the complex modes baseline solution is insensitive to the type of variations in pressure and velocity that occur in a test schedule.
Technical Paper

Optimization Methods Applied to Determine Clamping Forces in Fixture Design

This paper presents an optimization technique for clamping forces determination in fixture design. First, the finite element analysis (FEA) is applied to determine the coefficients of compliant matrix of a fixture-workpiece system subjected to machining and clamping forces. Then, a nonlinear optimization model is constructed in terms of the FEA results and mechanical and geometrical constraints. The optimization model is derived to determine the feasible clamps under the corresponding force effects. The optimal magnitude and direction of clamping forces minimize the workpiece deformation at particular key points. Finally, a scaled engine block with the 3-2-1 fixturing principle is given as an example.
Technical Paper

Form vs. Function: A Systems Approach to Achieving Harmony

Today's world places increased emphasis on society's members to know more, to do more, to see more. Increasingly, information is thrown to the consumer that he/she has to process almost continually, regardless of their surroundings. Due to this heightened need, the customer is becoming increasingly perceptive of their vehicle surroundings, expecting their vehicle to be an extension of their home and/or office, to assist in getting things done in an environment that is as convenient and comfortable as their primary workplace. Similarly, there is also increased emphasis on vehicles to be styled so that they are visually appealing, so that all the parts work as a whole to make the environment as enjoyable as consumers' most pleasant surroundings outside the vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Design Methodology for Active Top Pads During Airbag Deployment

Using a combination of engineering test experience, explicit finite-element analysis, and advanced materials characterization, a predictive engineering method has been developed that can assist in the development of active top pads. An active top pad is the component of the instrument panel that covers the passenger airbag module and articulates during a crash event, allowing the airbag to deploy. This paper highlights the predictive analysis method, analytical results interpretation, and suggestions for future development.
Technical Paper

TodayS Electronics in TodayS Vehicles

Historically, the long development time required to produce a new automobile has meant that the electronics in that vehicle might lag the state-of-the-art by several years. For traditional vehicle electronics, this was certainly an appropriate delay, ensuring through extensive testing and qualification that the quality and reliability of the electronic systems met rigorous standards. However, with the growing consumer-oriented electronics content in today's vehicles, it is becoming more difficult for the automotive manufacturers to meet consumers' expectations with older technology. Couple this with the fast-paced consumer product cycle, typically nine to eighteen and the result is increasing pressure on the vehicle manufacturers from after-market electronics suppliers, who can update their product lines as fast as the component manufacturers can produce new models.
Technical Paper

Utilization of a Chassis Dynamometer for Development of Exterior Noise Control Systems

The development of systems and components for control of exterior noise has traditionally been done through an iterative process of on road testing. Frequently, road testing of vehicle modifications are delayed due to ambient environmental changes that prevent testing. Vehicle dynamometers used for powertrain development often had limited space preventing far field measurements. Recently, several European vehicle manufacturers constructed facilities that provided adequate space for simulation of the road test. This paper describes the first implementation of that technology in the U.S.. The facility is typical of those used world wide, but it is important to recognize some of the challenges to effective utilization of the technique to correlate this measurement to on road certification.
Technical Paper

The 1997 Chevrolet Corvette Structure Architecture Synthesis

This paper describes the design, synthesis-analysis and development of the unique vehicle structure architecture for the fifth generation Chevrolet Corvette, ‘C5’, which starts in the 1997 model year. The innovative structural layout of the ‘C5’ enables torsional rigidity in an open roof vehicle which exceeds that of all current production open roof vehicles by a wide margin. The first structural mode of the ‘C5’ in open roof configuration approaches typical values measured in similar size fixed roof vehicles. Extensive use of CAE and a systems methodology of benchmarking and requirements rolldown were employed to develop the ‘C5’ vehicle architecture. Simple computer models coupled with numerical optimization were used early in the design process to evaluate every design concept and alternative iteration for mass and structural efficiency.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Vehicle Side Impact Test: Development. Application and Design Iterations

This paper describes a numerical simulation technique applicable to the FMVSS 214 side impact test through the use of the finite element method (FEM) technology. The paper outlines the development of the side impact dummy (SID), moving deformable barrier (MDB) and the test vehicle FEM models, as well as the development of new advanced constitutive models of materials and algorithms in LS-DYNA3D which are related to the topic. Presented in the paper are some initial simulation problems which were encountered and solved, as well as the correlation of the simulation data to the physical test.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management in the Auto Manufacturing Industry - A Report from President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development Auto Team

An assessment of automobile painting at General Motor's Lake Orion, Michigan, USA assembly facility from a life cycle perspective was conducted. The Orion Facility produces the new Oldsmobile Aurora and Buick Riviera models. Improvements in on-site pollution prevention, energy conservation and regulatory barriers to technology innovation were identified. The environmental implications of auto body substrate material choice were analyzed. A life cycle inventory framework was developed for paint suppliers and other parts of the auto painting life cycle. An Alternative Regulatory System was proposed for the entire U.S. auto industry that will, if implemented, facilitate the integration of environmental management into core business strategies and planning.
Technical Paper

The Use of Finite Element Analysis to Predict Body Build Distortion

Finite element methods can be used to simulate a class of variation problems induced by build distortion in the assembly process. The FEM approach was used to study two representative assembly problems: 1) Front fender mounting and resulting distortion due to various fastening sequences; and, 2) Coupe door assembly process and resulting deformation due to clamping and welding of flexible sheet metal parts. FEM is used to generate sensitivities of various process conditions. Correlation with measured Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) data is shown. The use of FEM to simulate manufacturing/assembly processes in the automotive industry is in it's infancy. As the new methods are developed this capability can be used to study the assembly process and provide guidance in designing more robust parts and assembly processes.