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Journal Article

High-Fidelity Transient Thermal Modeling of a Brake Corner

There is an increasing interest in transient thermal simulations of automotive brake systems. This paper presents a high-fidelity CFD tool for modeling complete braking cycles including both the deceleration and acceleration phases. During braking, this model applies the frictional heat at the interface on the contacting rotor and pad surfaces. Based on the conductive heat fluxes within the surrounding parts, the solver divides the frictional heat into energy fluxes entering the solid volumes of the rotor and the pad. The convective heat transfer between the surfaces of solid parts and the cooling airflow is simulated through conjugate heat transfer, and the discrete ordinates model captures the radiative heat exchange between solid surfaces. It is found that modeling the rotor rotation using the sliding mesh approach provides more realistic results than those obtained with the Multiple Reference Frames method.
Journal Article

Composite Thermal Model for Design of Climate Control System

We propose a composite thermal model of the vehicle passenger compartment that can be used to predict and analyze thermal comfort of the occupants of a vehicle. Physical model is developed using heat flow in and out of the passenger compartment space, comprised of glasses, roof, seats, dashboard, etc. Use of a model under a wide variety of test conditions have shown high sensitivity of compartment air temperature to changes in the outside air temperature, solar heat load, temperature and mass flow of duct outlet air from the climate control system of a vehicle. Use of this model has subsequently reduced empiricism and extensive experimental tests for design and tuning of the automatic climate control system. Simulation of the model allowed several changes to the designs well before the prototype hardware is available.
Technical Paper

Effect of Simulated Material Properties and Residual Stresses on High Cycle Fatigue Prediction in a Compacted Graphite Iron Engine Block

Casting, machining and structural simulations were completed on a V8 engine block made in Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) for use in a racing application. The casting and machining simulations generated maps of predicted tensile strength and residual stress in the block. These strength and stress maps were exported to a finite element structural model of the machined part. Assembly and operating loads were applied, and stresses due to these loads were determined. High cycle fatigue analysis was completed, and three sets of safety factors were calculated using the following conditions: uniform properties and no residual stress, predicted properties and no residual stress, and predicted properties plus residual stress.
Technical Paper

Combining DFSS and Multi-body Dynamics for Vehicle Ride Tuning

A methodology involving Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and Multi-body dynamic simulation is employed to tune a body-on-frame vehicle, for improved ride (shake) performance. The design space is limited to four sets of symmetric body mounts for a vehicle. The stiffness and damping characteristics of the mounts are the control factors in the virtual experiment. Variation of these design parameters from the nominal settings, as well as axle size, tire and wheel combinations, tire pressure, shock damping, and vehicle speed constitute the noise factors. This approach proves to be an excellent predictor of the vehicle behavior, by which much insight as to influence of each parameter on vehicle performance is gained. Ultimately, specific recommendations for the control factor settings are provided. Subsequent hardware builds show excellent agreement with the analytical model and suggested tuning.
Technical Paper

Lead-time Reduction in Stamping CAE and Die Face Development using Massively Parallel Processing in Forming Simulations

Since 1997, General Motors Body Manufacturing Engineering - Die Engineering Services (BME-DES) has been working jointly with our software vendor to develop and implement a parallel version of stamping simulation software for mass production analysis applications. The evolution of this technology and the insight gained through the implementation of DMP/MPP technology as well as performance benchmarks are discussed in this publication.
Technical Paper

The Oxidative Stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Global Factory Fill ATF

A detailed description of the oxidative stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Factory Fill Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is provided, which can be integrated into a working algorithm to estimate the end of useful oxidative life of the fluid. As described previously, an algorithm to determine the end of useful life of an automatic transmission fluid exists and is composed of two simultaneous counters, one monitoring bulk oxidation and the other monitoring friction degradation [1]. When either the bulk oxidation model or the friction model reach the specified limit, a signal can be triggered to alert the driver that an ATF change is required. The data presented in this report can be used to develop the bulk oxidation model. The bulk oxidation model is built from a large series of bench oxidation tests. These data can also be used independent of a vehicle to show the relative oxidation resistance of this fluid, at various temperatures, compared to other common lubricants.
Technical Paper

Advances in Indoor Tire Tread Wear Simulation

Indoor or laboratory testing of tire tread wear offers many advantages over vehicle fleet testing. Advances in test equipment capabilities and the technologies for defining and simulating meaningful tire loading histories has made indoor tread wear testing a reality. Tire loading histories are influenced by vehicle characteristics, wear course and driving style, and tire stiffnesses. Methods for independently characterizing each of these are reviewed. A simulation technique, TS-Sim, is also described that combines specific vehicle, course and tire characterizations to create a tire load history. The vehicle characterization is critical to the process since both wear rate and various forms of uneven and irregular wear are strongly dependent on vehicle suspension/steering characteristics and on dynamic load transfer behavior. The characterization process involves mapping the vehicle over a practical range of acceleration, deceleration and cornering maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustics of an Automotive A-Pillar Raingutter: A Numerical Study with the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Method

A numerical simulation of the flow structure around an idealized automotive A-pillar rain-gutter and the sound radiated from it is reported. The idealized rain-gutter is an infinitesimally thin backward facing elbow mounted on a flat plate. It is kept in a virtual wind-tunnel with rectangular cross-section. The transient flow structure around the rain-gutter is described and time-averaged pressure distribution along the base plate is provided. Time-varying static pressure was recorded on every grid point on the base-plate as well as the rain-gutter surfaces and used to calculate sound pressure signal at a microphone held above the rain-gutter using the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings (FWH) integral method was used for calculating sound propagation. Both the transient flow simulation as well as the FWH sound calculation were performed using the commercial CFD code FLUENT6.1.22.
Technical Paper

Multiple Solutions by Performance Band: An Effective Way to Deal with Modeling Error

Robust optimization usually requires numerous functional evaluations, which is not feasible when the functional evaluation is time-consuming. Examples in automobile industry include crash worthiness/safety and fatigue life simulations. In practice, a response surface model (RSM) is often used as a surrogate to the CAE model, so that robust optimization can be carried out. However, if the error in the RSM is significant, the solution based on the RSM can be invalid. This paper proposes a method of finding multiple candidate solutions, all of which have similar predicted performances. This approach is effective in finding the close-to-optimum solutions when the model has error, and providing design alternatives. Examples are provided to illustrate the method.
Technical Paper

Balanced Latin Hypercube Sampling for Stochastic Simulations of Spot Welds

In performing stochastic simulations using computer models, the method of sampling is important. It affects the quality and the convergence speed of the results. This paper discusses one special case: sampling of spot-weld locations from potentially thousands of spot welds on a vehicle body. This study is prompted by the need of evaluating the effect of missed spot welds on the structural integrity, identifying critical welds, and optimizing weld locations. A balanced random sampling algorithm based on the concept of Latin-Hypercube sampling is developed for this application. We also present a case study in which the efficiency of three different sampling methods is compared using a car joint stiffness example. The new method, called the Balanced Latin-Hypercube Sampling (BLHS), has shown significantly faster convergence over the other two.
Technical Paper

Automotive Noise and Vibration Control Practices in the New Millennium

The approaches used to develop an NVH package for a vehicle have changed dramatically over the last several years. New noise and vibration control strategies have been introduced, new materials have been developed, advanced testing techniques have been implemented, and sophisticated computer modeling has been applied. These approaches help design NVH solutions that are optimized for cost, performance, and weight. This paper explains the NVH practices available for use in designing vehicles for the new millennium.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Assessing Driver Workload in the Early Development of In-Vehicle Information Systems

This study examined whether the effect of subsidiary tasks on driving performance can be predicted from stationary (static) testing. Alternative methods for assessing the performance of drivers during their use of in-vehicle information systems were examined. These methods included static testing in stationary vehicles, as well as dynamic, on-road testing. The measures that were obtained from static tests were evaluated in terms of how well they could predict measures obtained from driving performance during on-road testing (which included concurrent use of secondary information systems). The results indicated that measures obtained in static test settings were highly correlated with corresponding measures obtained from on-road performance testing.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stress Correlation and Modeling of Driveline Bending Integrity for 4WD Sport Utility Vehicles

Reducing the high cost of hardware testing with analytical methods has been highly accelerated in the automotive industry. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline bending integrity test for the longitudinal 4WD-driveline configuration. The dynamic stresses produced in the adapter/transfer case and propeller shaft can be predicted analytically using this model. Particularly, when the 4WD powertrain experiences its structural bending during the operation speed and the propeller shaft experiences the critical whirl motion and its structural bending due to the inherent imbalance. For a 4WD-Powertrain application, the dynamic coupling effect of a flexible powertrain with a flexible propeller shaft is significant and demonstrated in this paper. Three major subsystems are modeled in this analytical model, namely the powertrain, the final rear drive, and the propeller shafts.
Technical Paper

Application of Variation Simulation in Body Assembly Process Design

Build variation has long been recognized as one of the most important factors in vehicle performance. In this study an elastic assembly simulation program is used to guide a wheelhouse assembly process design to reduce build variation. Five (5) different clamping schemes are evaluated through the simulation program. From the five proposed process design choices, the best assembly process was identified, which results in reduced assembly variation and less tooling and manufacturing costs. Two different variation simulation approaches, one based on perturbation and the other based on Design of Experiments, were used to predict the assembly variation. Good agreement between the two approaches provided a validity check for the simulation tool.
Technical Paper

Daytime Running Lights (Drls)-A North American Success Story

Many traffic collisions are the result of the driver's failure to notice the other vehicle. It is often cited in police reports that the driver "looked but did not see.'' The purpose of Daytime Running Lights (DRLs) is to increase the visual contrast of DRL-equipped vehicles. Visual contrast, which is the difference in brightness between two areas, is an important characteristic enabling a driver to detect objects. This paper begins with a brief regulatory history of DRLs in the U.S. and how General Motors Corporation (GM) introduced DRL-equipped vehicles. It also describes a DRL effectiveness study conducted by Exponent Failure Analysis Associates of San Francisco for General Motors Corporation. The study compared the collision rates of specific General Motors Corporation, Saab, Volvo and Volkswagen vehicles before and immediately after the introduction of DRLs. Since DRLs are not visible from behind a vehicle, rear-end collisions were not included in the study.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Advances in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis for Brake Noise

Brake squeal has been analyzed by finite elements for some time. Among several methods, complex eigenvalue analysis is proving useful in the design process. It requires hardware verification and it falls into a simulation process. However, it is fast and it can provide guidance for resolving engineering problems. There are successes as well as frustrations in implementing this analysis tool. Its capability, robustness and reliability are closely examined in many companies. Generally, the low frequency squealing mechanism is a rotor axial direction mode that couples the pads, rotor, and other components; while higher frequency squeal mainly exhibits a rotor tangential mode. Design modifications such as selection of rotor design, insulator, chamfer, and lining materials are aimed specifically to cure these noise-generating mechanisms. In GM, complex eigenvalue analysis is used for brake noise analysis and noise reduction. Finite element models are validated with component modal testing.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Approach for Rapid Design and Analysis of Automotive HVAC Defrost Systems

The overall vision of this project was to develop a new technology that will be an enabler to reduce design and development time of HVAC systems by an order of magnitude. The objective initially was to develop a parametric model of an automotive HVAC Windshield Defrost Duct coupled to a passenger compartment. It can be used early on in the design cycle for conducting coarse packaging studies by quickly exploring “what-if” design alternatives. In addition to the packaging studies, performance of these design scenarios can be quickly studied by undertaking CFD simulation and analyzing flow distribution and windshield melting patterns. The validated geometry and CFD models can also be used as knowledge building tools to create knowledge data warehouses or repositories for precious lessons learned.
Technical Paper

Cadillac DeVille Thermal Imaging Night Vision System

The purpose of the Cadillac DeVille Night Vision System is to provide drivers with visual information beyond with the range of their headlamps. It can also help drivers see beyond the glare of oncoming vehicle’s headlamps. With increased visual range the driver may have more time to react to potentially dangerous situations. The system consists of a thermal imaging camera, a head-up display, and image controls. The camera senses temperature differences of objects in the road scene ahead and creates a thermal image of the scene. The head-up display projects this image onto the windshield creating a virtual image that appears at the front edge of the vehicle’s hood just below the driver’s line of sight. This paper will describe the system requirements and parameters of the 2000 Cadillac DeVille Night Vision system.
Technical Paper

Development of the 2001 Pontiac Aztek Body Structure

This paper documents the development process of the 2001 Pontiac Aztek body structure for improved noise & vibration performance. Successful vehicle development under an accelerated timing schedule demands clearly defined body structure vibration performance targets and critical dependence on the math based modeling process. Specifications for global body structure vibration performance were generated through a two step process. First, a benchmarking activity was undertaken to comprehend competitive vehicle performance. Secondly, a frequency domain “mode map” was constructed to minimize vehicle subsystem interaction. Computer simulation models were developed to predict the body structure performance. A coarse full body structure model was used to define body structure section size and joint requirements. Detailed analysis models of body joint areas were used to synthesize the joint design.