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Technical Paper

Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

2016-09-18
2016-01-1926
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force.
Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Journal Article

Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

2015-04-14
2015-01-1201
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
Journal Article

Exhaust Valve & Valve Seat Insert – Development for an Industrial LPG Application

2009-05-13
2009-01-1602
Automotive engines are regularly utilized in the material handling market where LPG is often the primary fuel used. When compared to gasoline, the use of gaseous fuels (LPG and CNG) as well as alcohol based fuels, often result in significant increases in valve seat insert (VSI) and valve face wear. This phenomenon is widely recognized and the engine manufacturer is tasked to identify and incorporate appropriate valvetrain material and design features that can meet the ever increasing life expectations of the end-user. Alternate materials are often developed based on laboratory testing – testing that may not represent real world usage. The ultimate goal of the product engineer is to utilize accelerated lab test procedures that can be correlated to field life and field failure mechanisms, and then select appropriate materials/design features that meet the targeted life requirements.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake System Performance during Race Track/High Energy Driving Conditions with Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Neural-Network Subsystem Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-0860
In racetrack conditions, brake systems are subjected to extreme energy loads and energy load distributions. This can lead to very high friction surface temperatures, especially on the brake corner that operates, for a given track, with the most available traction and the highest energy loading. Individual brake corners can be stressed to the point of extreme fade and lining wear, and the resultant degradation in brake corner performance can affect the performance of the entire brake system, causing significant changes in pedal feel, brake balance, and brake lining life. It is therefore important in high performance brake system design to ensure favorable operating conditions for the selected brake corner components under the full range of conditions that the intended vehicle application will place them under. To address this task in an early design stage, it is helpful to use brake system modeling tools to analyze system performance.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Journal Article

Safety Analysis of Software-intensive Motion Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0756
The auto industry has had decades of experience with designing safe vehicles. The introduction of highly integrated features brings new challenges that require innovative adaptations of existing safety methodologies and perhaps even some completely new concepts. In this paper, we describe some of the new challenges that will be faced by all OEMs and suppliers. We also describe a set of generic top-level potential hazards that can be used as a starting point for the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of a vehicle software-intensive motion control system. Based on our experience with the safety analysis of a system of this kind, we describe some general categories of hazard causes that are considered for software-intensive systems and can be used systematically in developing the PHA.
Technical Paper

Using a Co-simulation Framework to Enable Software-in-the-Loop Powertrain System Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0520
The Advanced Engineering (AE) group within General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) develops next generation engines and transmissions for automotive and marine products. As a research organization, AE needs to prototype design ideas quickly and inexpensively. To this end, AE has embraced model-based development techniques and is currently investigating the benefits of software in-the-loop (SIL) testing. The underlying obstacle faced in developing a practical SIL system lays in the ability to integrate a plant model with sufficient fidelity together with target application software. ChiasTek worked with AE utilizing their CosiMate tool chain to eliminate these barriers and delivered a flexible SIL system simulation solution.
Technical Paper

Model Driven Testing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0743
While the industry has recognized the value of modeling and code generation, the role of verification has taken a limited second tier role. Model Based Testing (MBT) is typically discussed in the context of automation of testing activities to eliminate the burden of generation and execution of tests. Unfortunately, this objective of effort minimization has skewed solutions away from using quality as a guiding metric. Alternatively, we have identified the simple objective of increasing the quality of testing practices and productivity of developers. In the following paper we introduce the integration of traditional software quality practices of functional, unit, and regression testing with the automated, model-driven world. This approach enables a quantitative approach to model driven software quality. The result is a robust technique that enables confident use of model-based development for production applications.
Technical Paper

Designing Automotive Subsystems Using Virtual Manufacturing and Distributed Computing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0288
Adopting robust design principles is a proven methodology for increasing design reliability. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) has incorporated robust design principles into their Signal Delivery Subsystem (SDSS) development process by moving traditional prototype manufacturing and test functions from hardware to software. This virtual manufacturing technique, where subsystems are built and tested using simulation software, increases the number of possible prototype iterations while simultaneously decreasing the time required to gather statistically meaningful test results. This paper describes how virtual manufacturing was developed using distributed computing.
Technical Paper

Drum Brake Out of Roundness Reduction to Improve Brake Pulsation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0825
The drum brake pulsation is an issue that may cause a major customer complaint. One of the root causes of the drum pulsation is the deformation of the drum to an out of roundness (OOR) shape during the wheel-drum-axle assembly process under the presence of the uneven wheel flatness. This paper summarizes the newly developed OOR simulation method using ABAQUS and the counter-measures to reduce the OOR, and subsequently pulsation, by identifying the drum design parameter effects on OOR.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Brake Apply System Response and Aero-Acoustic Performance Considerations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0821
Over the past decade, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and an ever increasing need by original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers to differentiate themselves in the marketplace. This differentiation is increasingly accomplished by introducing new technology while continually improving the performance of existing automotive systems. In the area of automotive brake system design, and, in particular, the brake apply subsystem, an increased focus has been placed on the development of electrohydraulic apply systems and brake-by-wire systems to replace traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Nevertheless, the traditional brake apply systems, especially vacuum-based or pneumatic systems, will continue to represent the majority of brake apply system production volume into the foreseeable future, which underscores the need to improve the performance and application of these traditional systems in passenger cars and light-trucks.
Technical Paper

Brake Noise Analysis with Lining Wear

2008-04-14
2008-01-0823
It is well known that lining reduction through wear affects contact pressure profile and noise generation. Due to high complexity in brake noise analysis, many factors were not included in previous analyses. In this paper, a new analysis process is performed by running brake “burnishing” cycles first, followed by noise analysis. In the paper, brake lining reduction due to wear is assumed to be proportional to the applied brake pressure with ABAQUS analysis. Brake pads go through four brake application-releasing cycles until the linings settle to a more stable pressure distribution. The resulting pressure profiles show lining cupping and high pressure spots shifting. The pressure distributions are compared to TekScan measurements. Brake noise analysis is then conducted with complex eigenvalue analysis steps; the resulting stability chart is better correlated to testing when the wear is comprehended.
Journal Article

Superelement, Component Mode Synthesis, and Automated Multilevel Substructuring for Rapid Vehicle Development

2008-04-14
2008-01-0287
This paper presents the new techniques/methods being used for the rapid vehicle development and system level performance assessment. It consists of two parts: the first part presents the automated multilevel substructuring (AMLS) technique, which greatly reduces the computational demands of larger finite element models with millions of degrees of freedom(DOF) and extends the capabilities to higher frequencies and higher level of accuracy; the second part is on the superelement in conjunction with the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) and also Automated Component Mode Synthesis (ACMS) techniques. In superelement, a full vehicle model is divided into components such as Body-in-white, Front cradle/chassis, Rear cradle/chassis, Exhaust, Engine, Transmission, Driveline, Front suspension, Rear suspension, Brake, Seats, Instrument panel, Steering system, tires, etc. with each piece represented by reduced stiffness, mass, and damping matrices.
Technical Paper

Computational Aeroacoustics Investigation of Automobile Sunroof Buffeting

2007-05-15
2007-01-2403
A numerical investigation of automobile sunroof buffeting on a prototype sport utility vehicle (SUV) is presented, including experimental validation. Buffeting is an unpleasant low frequency booming caused by flow-excited Helmholtz resonance of the interior cabin. Accurate prediction of this phenomenon requires accounting for the bi-directional coupling between the transient shear layer aerodynamics (vortex shedding) and the acoustic response of the cabin. Numerical simulations were performed using the PowerFLOW code, a CFD/CAA software package from Exa Corporation based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The well established LBM approach provides the time-dependent solution to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and directly captures both turbulent and acoustic pressure fluctuations over a wide range of scales given adequate computational grid resolution.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

2007-05-15
2007-01-2245
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper

Expanding the Application of Magnesium Components in the Automotive Industry: A Strategic Vision

2007-04-16
2007-01-1033
There is an increasing global realization about the need for fuel efficient vehicles. An inexpensive way to accomplish this is through mass reduction, and one of the most effective ways that this can occur is through substituting current materials with magnesium, the lightest structural metal. This document describes the results of a U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) sponsored study [1] that examines why magnesium use has only grown 10% per year and identifies how to promote more widespread commercial applications beyond the 5-6 kg of component currently in vehicles. The issues and concerns which have limited magnesium use are discussed via a series of research and development themes. These address concerns associated with corrosion, fastening, and minimal metalworking/non-traditional casting processing. The automotive and magnesium supplier industries have only a limited ability to develop implementation-ready magnesium components.
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