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Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Engine with Direct Injection

General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 engine has been upgraded to provide substantial improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions for the 2008 model year Cadillac CTS and STS. The fundamental change was a switch from traditional manifold-port fuel injection (MPFI) to spark ignition direct injection (SIDI). Additional modifications include enhanced cylinder head and intake manifold air flow capacities, optimized camshaft profiles, and increased compression ratio. The SIDI fuel system presented the greatest opportunities for system development and optimization in order to maximize improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions. In particular, the injector flow rate, orifice geometry, and spray pattern were selected to provide the optimum balance of high power and torque, low fuel consumption, stable combustion, low smoke emissions, and robust tolerance to injector plugging.
Technical Paper

NVH Analysis of Balancer Chain Drives with the Compliant Sprocket of the Crankshaft with a Dual-Mass Flywheel for an Inline-4 Engine

The work presented in this paper outlines the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives in an effort to reduce the noise levels related to chain-sprocket meshing. An experimental observation of a severe chain noise around a resonant engine speed with the Dual-Mass Flywheel (DMF) and standard build solid (fixed) balancer drive sprocket. Torsional oscillation at the crankshaft nose at full load is induced by uneven running of crankshaft with a dual-mass flywheel system. This results in an increase of the undesirable impact noise caused by the meshing between the chain-links and the engagement/disengagement regions of sprockets, and the clatter noise from the interaction between the vibrating chain and the guides. This paper evaluates and discusses the benefits that the compliant sprocket design provided. A multi-body dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

On the Potential of Low Heat Rejection DI Diesel Engines to Reduce Tail-Pipe Emissions

Heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls constitutes a significant portion of the overall energy losses over the working cycle of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. In the last few decades, numerous research efforts have been devoted to investigating the prospects of boosting efficiency by insulating the combustion chamber. Relatively few studies have focused on the prospects of reducing emissions by applying combustion chamber insulation. A main purpose of this study is to assess the potential of reducing in-cylinder soot as well as boosting aftertreatment performance by means of partially insulating the combustion chamber. Based on the findings from a conceptual study, a Low Heat Rejection (LHR) design, featuring a Nimonic 80A insert into an Aluminum piston, was developed and tested experimentally at various loads in a single-cylinder Hatz-engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine with a High-Squish Piston

This work describes an experimental investigation on the stratified combustion and engine-out emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder, spark-ignition, direct-injection, spray-guided engine employing an outward-opening injector, an optimized high-squish, bowled piston, and a variable swirl valve control. Experiments were performed using two different outward-opening injectors with 80° and 90° spray angles, each having a variable injector pintle-lift control allowing different rates of injection. The fuel consumption of the engine was found to improve with decreasing air-swirl motion, increasing spark-plug length, increasing spark energy, and decreasing effective rate of injection, but to be relatively insensitive to fuel-rail pressure in the range of 10-20 MPa. At optimal injection and ignition timings, no misfires were observed in 30,000 consecutive cycles.
Technical Paper

The Supercharged Northstar DOHC 4.4L V8 Engine for Cadillac

A new high output supercharged Northstar DOHC 4.4L V8 engine has been developed for new “V” series Cadillac performance models. The new engine combines the highest power rating of any production Cadillac engine to date with operating refinement uncommon at this power level. The new engine incorporates a high capacity airflow system including a unique GM Powertrain (GMPT) patented supercharger. The design integrates the intake manifold and supercharger (SC) into a supercharger module (SCM) supplied with throttle body (TB) and intercoolers (IC). The new engine architecture is based on the naturally aspirated (NA) rear wheel drive (RWD) engine released in 2004, but has been specifically designed and upgraded from the NA version for the greater structural and thermal loads that result from supercharging.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of a Small-Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine - Full-Load Operation

Full-load operation of a small-displacement spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine was thoroughly investigated by means of computational analysis and engine measurements. The performance is affected by many different factors, which can be grouped as those pertaining to volumetric efficiency, to mixing and stratification, and to system issues, respectively. Volumetric efficiency is affected by flow losses, tuning and charge cooling. Charge cooling due to spray vaporization is often touted as the most significant benefit of direct-injection on full-load performance. However, if wall wetting occurs, this benefit may be completely negated or even reversed. The fuel-air mixing is strongly affected by the injection timing and characteristics at lower engine speeds, while at higher engine speeds the intake flow dominates the transport of fuel particles and resultant vapor distribution. A higher injector flow rate enhances mixing especially at higher engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of a Small-Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine - Stratified Operation

Superior fuel economy was achieved for a small-displacement spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine by optimizing the stratified combustion operation. The optimization was performed using computational analyses and subsequently testing the most promising configurations experimentally. The fuel economy savings are achieved by the use of a multihole injector with novel spray shape, which allows ultra-lean stratification for a wide range of part-load operating conditions without compromising smoke and hydrocarbon emissions. In this regard, a key challenge for wall-controlled SIDI engines is the minimization of wall wetting to prevent smoke, which may require advanced injection timings, while at the same time minimizing hydrocarbon emissions, which may require retarding injection and thereby preventing over-mixing of the fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Stratified-Charge Regime of the Reverse-Tumble Wall-Controlled Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

An optimum combustion chamber was designed for a reverse-tumble wall-controlled gasoline direct-injection engine by systematically optimizing each design element of the combustion system. The optimization was based on fuel-economy, hydrocarbon, combustion-stability and smoke measurements at a 2000 rev/min test-point representation of road-load operating condition. The combustion-chamber design parameters that were optimized in this study included: piston-bowl depth, piston-bowl opening width, piston-bowl-volume ratio, exhaust-side squish height, bowl-lip draft angle, distance between spark-plug electrode and piston-bowl lip, spark-plug-electrode length, and injector spray-cone angle. No attempt was made to optimize the gross engine parameters such as bore and stroke or the intake system, since this study focused on optimizing a reverse-tumble wall-controlled gasoline direct-injection variant of an existing port-fueled injection engine.