Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

2016-11-07
2016-22-0016
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

2016-09-18
2016-01-1926
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force.
Journal Article

Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

2015-04-14
2015-01-1201
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

2009-11-02
2009-22-0016
The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Journal Article

Exhaust Valve & Valve Seat Insert – Development for an Industrial LPG Application

2009-05-13
2009-01-1602
Automotive engines are regularly utilized in the material handling market where LPG is often the primary fuel used. When compared to gasoline, the use of gaseous fuels (LPG and CNG) as well as alcohol based fuels, often result in significant increases in valve seat insert (VSI) and valve face wear. This phenomenon is widely recognized and the engine manufacturer is tasked to identify and incorporate appropriate valvetrain material and design features that can meet the ever increasing life expectations of the end-user. Alternate materials are often developed based on laboratory testing – testing that may not represent real world usage. The ultimate goal of the product engineer is to utilize accelerated lab test procedures that can be correlated to field life and field failure mechanisms, and then select appropriate materials/design features that meet the targeted life requirements.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake System Performance during Race Track/High Energy Driving Conditions with Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Neural-Network Subsystem Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-0860
In racetrack conditions, brake systems are subjected to extreme energy loads and energy load distributions. This can lead to very high friction surface temperatures, especially on the brake corner that operates, for a given track, with the most available traction and the highest energy loading. Individual brake corners can be stressed to the point of extreme fade and lining wear, and the resultant degradation in brake corner performance can affect the performance of the entire brake system, causing significant changes in pedal feel, brake balance, and brake lining life. It is therefore important in high performance brake system design to ensure favorable operating conditions for the selected brake corner components under the full range of conditions that the intended vehicle application will place them under. To address this task in an early design stage, it is helpful to use brake system modeling tools to analyze system performance.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Journal Article

Hot Surface Ignition of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Mixtures

2009-04-20
2009-01-0016
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of hot surface ignition (HSI) testing and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) auto-ignition testing (AIT) performed on gasoline fuel mixtures containing varying levels of ethanol. With the increased consumer interest in ethanol-based fuels as a measure of reducing the United States dependence on foreign oil, the use of E85 and other ethanol/petroleum fuel blends is on the increase. While some autoignition data for summer and winter blends of gasoline on hot surfaces exist beyond the standard ASTM E659-78 test procedure [1], there is little data on ethanol-based fuels and their HSI characteristics.
Journal Article

Safety Analysis of Software-intensive Motion Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0756
The auto industry has had decades of experience with designing safe vehicles. The introduction of highly integrated features brings new challenges that require innovative adaptations of existing safety methodologies and perhaps even some completely new concepts. In this paper, we describe some of the new challenges that will be faced by all OEMs and suppliers. We also describe a set of generic top-level potential hazards that can be used as a starting point for the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of a vehicle software-intensive motion control system. Based on our experience with the safety analysis of a system of this kind, we describe some general categories of hazard causes that are considered for software-intensive systems and can be used systematically in developing the PHA.
Technical Paper

Drum Brake Out of Roundness Reduction to Improve Brake Pulsation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0825
The drum brake pulsation is an issue that may cause a major customer complaint. One of the root causes of the drum pulsation is the deformation of the drum to an out of roundness (OOR) shape during the wheel-drum-axle assembly process under the presence of the uneven wheel flatness. This paper summarizes the newly developed OOR simulation method using ABAQUS and the counter-measures to reduce the OOR, and subsequently pulsation, by identifying the drum design parameter effects on OOR.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Brake Apply System Response and Aero-Acoustic Performance Considerations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0821
Over the past decade, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and an ever increasing need by original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers to differentiate themselves in the marketplace. This differentiation is increasingly accomplished by introducing new technology while continually improving the performance of existing automotive systems. In the area of automotive brake system design, and, in particular, the brake apply subsystem, an increased focus has been placed on the development of electrohydraulic apply systems and brake-by-wire systems to replace traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Nevertheless, the traditional brake apply systems, especially vacuum-based or pneumatic systems, will continue to represent the majority of brake apply system production volume into the foreseeable future, which underscores the need to improve the performance and application of these traditional systems in passenger cars and light-trucks.
Technical Paper

Brake Noise Analysis with Lining Wear

2008-04-14
2008-01-0823
It is well known that lining reduction through wear affects contact pressure profile and noise generation. Due to high complexity in brake noise analysis, many factors were not included in previous analyses. In this paper, a new analysis process is performed by running brake “burnishing” cycles first, followed by noise analysis. In the paper, brake lining reduction due to wear is assumed to be proportional to the applied brake pressure with ABAQUS analysis. Brake pads go through four brake application-releasing cycles until the linings settle to a more stable pressure distribution. The resulting pressure profiles show lining cupping and high pressure spots shifting. The pressure distributions are compared to TekScan measurements. Brake noise analysis is then conducted with complex eigenvalue analysis steps; the resulting stability chart is better correlated to testing when the wear is comprehended.
Journal Article

Superelement, Component Mode Synthesis, and Automated Multilevel Substructuring for Rapid Vehicle Development

2008-04-14
2008-01-0287
This paper presents the new techniques/methods being used for the rapid vehicle development and system level performance assessment. It consists of two parts: the first part presents the automated multilevel substructuring (AMLS) technique, which greatly reduces the computational demands of larger finite element models with millions of degrees of freedom(DOF) and extends the capabilities to higher frequencies and higher level of accuracy; the second part is on the superelement in conjunction with the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) and also Automated Component Mode Synthesis (ACMS) techniques. In superelement, a full vehicle model is divided into components such as Body-in-white, Front cradle/chassis, Rear cradle/chassis, Exhaust, Engine, Transmission, Driveline, Front suspension, Rear suspension, Brake, Seats, Instrument panel, Steering system, tires, etc. with each piece represented by reduced stiffness, mass, and damping matrices.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Application of Magnesium Components in the Automotive Industry: A Strategic Vision

2007-04-16
2007-01-1033
There is an increasing global realization about the need for fuel efficient vehicles. An inexpensive way to accomplish this is through mass reduction, and one of the most effective ways that this can occur is through substituting current materials with magnesium, the lightest structural metal. This document describes the results of a U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) sponsored study [1] that examines why magnesium use has only grown 10% per year and identifies how to promote more widespread commercial applications beyond the 5-6 kg of component currently in vehicles. The issues and concerns which have limited magnesium use are discussed via a series of research and development themes. These address concerns associated with corrosion, fastening, and minimal metalworking/non-traditional casting processing. The automotive and magnesium supplier industries have only a limited ability to develop implementation-ready magnesium components.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake Lining Life Using an Energy-Based CAE Approach

2007-04-16
2007-01-1019
Due to competitive pressures and the need to rapidly develop new products for the automotive marketplace, the automotive industry has to rapidly develop and validate automotive subsystems and components. While many CAE tools are employed to decrease the time needed for a number of brake engineering tasks such as stress analysis, brake system sizing, thermo-fluid analysis, and structural dynamics, brake lining wear and the associated concept of “lining life” are still predominantly developed and validated through resource intensive public road vehicle testing. The goal of this paper is to introduce and detail an energy-based, lumped-parameter CAE approach to predict brake lining life in passenger cars and light trucks.
Technical Paper

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of Press Hardened Boron Steel using Digital Image Correlation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0790
Tensile measurements and fracture surface analysis of low carbon heat-treated boron steel are reported. Tensile coupons were quasi-statically deformed to fracture in a miniature tensile testing stage with custom data acquisition software. Strain contours were computed via a digital image correlation method that allowed placement of a digital strain gage in the necking region. True stress-true strain data corresponding to the standard tensile testing method are presented for comparison with previous measurements. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were identified.
X