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Journal Article

Fast and Efficient Detection of Shading of the Objects

2015-04-14
2015-01-0371
The human thermal comfort, which has been a subject of extensive research, is a principal objective of the automotive climate control system. Applying the results of research studies to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environment in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The exposure to solar radiation is known to alter the thermal environment in the passenger compartment. A photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in the automotive climate control system to measure the solar radiation exposure of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The erroneous information from a sensor however can cause thermal discomfort to the occupants. The erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to the opaque vehicle body elements is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

2009-11-02
2009-22-0016
The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Technical Paper

Concept and Implementation of a Robust HCCI Engine Controller

2009-04-20
2009-01-1131
General Motors recently demonstrated two driveable test vehicles powered by a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. HCCI combustion has the potential of a significant fuel economy benefit with reduced after-treatment cost. However, the biggest challenge of realizing HCCI in vehicle applications is controlling the combustion process. Without a direct trigger mechanism for HCCI's flameless combustion, the in-cylinder mixture composition and temperature must be tightly controlled in order to achieve robust HCCI combustion. The control architecture and strategy that was implemented in the demo vehicles is presented in this paper. Both demo vehicles, one with automatic transmission and the other one with manual transmission, are powered by a 2.2-liter HCCI engine that features a central direct-injection system, variable valve lift on both intake and exhaust valves, dual electric camshaft phasers and individual cylinder pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Observer Design for Fuel Reforming in HCCI Engines Using a UEGO Sensor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1132
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion shows a high potential of reducing both fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Many works have been devoted to extend the HCCI operation range in order to maximize its fuel economy benefit. Among them, fuel injection strategies that use fuel reforming to increase the cylinder charge temperature to facilitate HCCI combustion at low engine loads have been proposed. However, to estimate and control an optimal amount of fuel reforming in the cylinder of an HCCI engine proves to be challenging because the fuel reforming process depends on many engine variables. It is conceivable that the amount of fuel reforming can be estimated since it correlates with the combustion phasing which in turn can be measured using a cylinder pressure sensor.
Journal Article

Shudder Durability of a Wet Launch Clutch Part II - Durability Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-0330
Under the initiative of the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR§) Transmission Working Group, a collaborative effort was made with LuK USA LLC to study the influence of the friction interface parameters on the shudder durability of a wet launch clutch. Clutch configurations with different combinations of four friction materials (A, B, C and D), three groove patterns (waffle, radial and waffle-parallel) and two separator plate conditions (nitrided and non-nitrided) were considered. Durability testing consisted of a test profile, with 110 kJ energy per test cycle, developed earlier in this project. Materials A, B and C with nitrided separator plates reached the end of test criteria for the torque gradient and showed shudder. Materials B and C were more wear resistant as compared to materials A and D. The loss of friction coefficient (μ) was lower for materials B, C and D as compared to material A.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Backpressure Estimation for an Internal Combustion Engine with a Variable Geometry Turbo Charger

2009-04-20
2009-01-0732
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the key approaches applied to reduce emissions for an internal combustion engine. Recirculating a desired amount of EGR requires accurately estimating EGR mass flow. This can be calculated either from the gas flow equation of an orifice, or from the difference between charge air mass flow and fresh air mass flow. Both calculations need engine exhaust pressure as an input variable. This paper presents a method to estimate exhaust pressure for a variable geometry turbo charged diesel engine. The method is accurate and simple to fit production ECU application, therefore, saves cost of using a physical sensor.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Cu-Based SCR/DPF Technology for Diesel Exhaust Emission Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-0072
Recently, a new technology, termed 2-way SCR/DPF by the authors, has been developed by several catalyst suppliers for diesel exhaust emission control. Unlike a conventional emission control system consisting of an SCR catalyst followed by a catalyzed DPF, a wall-flow filter is coated with SCR catalysts for controlling both NOx and PM emissions in a single catalytic converter, thus reducing the overall system volume and cost. In this work, the potential and limitations of the Cu/Zeolite-based SCR/DPF technology for meeting future emission standards were evaluated on a pick-up truck equipped with a prototype light-duty diesel engine.
Journal Article

Late Intake Valve Closing as an Emissions Control Strategy at Tier 2 Bin 5 Engine-Out NOx Level

2008-04-14
2008-01-0637
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Engine with Direct Injection

2008-04-14
2008-01-0132
General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 engine has been upgraded to provide substantial improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions for the 2008 model year Cadillac CTS and STS. The fundamental change was a switch from traditional manifold-port fuel injection (MPFI) to spark ignition direct injection (SIDI). Additional modifications include enhanced cylinder head and intake manifold air flow capacities, optimized camshaft profiles, and increased compression ratio. The SIDI fuel system presented the greatest opportunities for system development and optimization in order to maximize improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions. In particular, the injector flow rate, orifice geometry, and spray pattern were selected to provide the optimum balance of high power and torque, low fuel consumption, stable combustion, low smoke emissions, and robust tolerance to injector plugging.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

Development and Control of Electro-hydraulic Fully Flexible Valve Actuation System for Diesel Combustion Research

2007-10-29
2007-01-4021
Fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system, often referred to as camless valvetrain, employs electronically controlled actuators to drive the intake and/or exhaust valves. This technology enables the engine controller to tailor the valve event according to the engine operating condition in real-time to improve fuel economy, emissions and performance. At GM Research and Development Center, we have developed laboratory electro-hydraulic FFVA systems for single cylinder gasoline engines. The objective of this work is to develop a FFVA system for advanced diesel combustion research. There are three major differences between gasoline and diesel engines in terms of applying the FFVA systems. First, the orientation of the diesel engine valves and the location of the fuel injection system complicate the packaging issue. Second, the clearance between the valves and the piston for diesel engines are extremely small.
Technical Paper

An Engineering Method for Part-load Engine Simulation

2007-10-29
2007-01-4102
This work provides an effective engineering method of building a part-load engine simulation model from a wide-open throttle (WOT) engine model and available dynamometer data. It shows how to perform part-load engine simulation using optimizer for targeted manifold absolute air pressure (MAP) on a basic matrix of engine speed and MAP. Key combustion parameters were estimated to cover the entire part-load region based on affordable assumptions and limitations. Engine rubbing friction and pumping friction were combined to compare against the motoring torque. The emission data from GM dynamometer laboratory were used to compare against engine simulation results after attaching the RLT sensor to record emission data in the engine simulation model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Recompression and Fuel Reforming in a SIDI-HCCI Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1878
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a combustion concept which has the potential for efficiency comparable to a DI Diesel engine with low NOx and soot emissions. However, HCCI is difficult to control, especially at low speeds and loads. One way to assist with combustion control and to extend operation to low speed and loads is to close the exhaust valve before TDC of the exhaust stroke, trapping and recompressing some of the hot residual. Further advantages can be attained by injecting the fuel into this trapped, recompressed mixture, where chemical reactions occur that improve ignitability of the subsequent combustion cycle. Even further improvement in the subsequent combustion cycle can be achieved by applying a spark, leading to a spark-assisted HCCI combustion concept.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Application of Magnesium Components in the Automotive Industry: A Strategic Vision

2007-04-16
2007-01-1033
There is an increasing global realization about the need for fuel efficient vehicles. An inexpensive way to accomplish this is through mass reduction, and one of the most effective ways that this can occur is through substituting current materials with magnesium, the lightest structural metal. This document describes the results of a U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) sponsored study [1] that examines why magnesium use has only grown 10% per year and identifies how to promote more widespread commercial applications beyond the 5-6 kg of component currently in vehicles. The issues and concerns which have limited magnesium use are discussed via a series of research and development themes. These address concerns associated with corrosion, fastening, and minimal metalworking/non-traditional casting processing. The automotive and magnesium supplier industries have only a limited ability to develop implementation-ready magnesium components.
Technical Paper

Global Research and Development: GM Case Study India

2006-10-16
2006-21-0086
Global R&D is in its infant stages. Senior executives and their organizations need to develop deeper understanding of the opportunities and challenges of off-shoring R&D. While global pressure will continue to mount to deliver more value at ever lower cost, the labor cost arbitrage break in countries such as China or India will not last forever. The fundamental challenge is to use the current low-cost advantage to build rapidly a sustainable technology, product and service advantage. This requires the development of a balanced local growth strategy that is well adapted to the regional strengths while ensuring a seamless global integration of people, organizations, and processes. This paper focuses on the build-up of GM's R&D activities in India with an emphasis on research in one of the key thrust areas in GM R&D - Automotive Electronics, Controls, and Software. Lessons learned apply also to development.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Cycle to Cycle Variability of the Inlet Flow of Fuel Injectors Using LDA

2006-10-16
2006-01-3314
The focus of this research effort was to develop a technique to measure the cyclic variability of the mass injected by fuel injectors. Successful implementation of the measurement technique introduced in this paper can be used to evaluate injectors and improve their designs. More consistent and precise fuel injectors have the potential to improve fuel efficiency, engine performance, and reduce emissions. The experiments for this study were conducted at the Michigan State University Automotive Research Experiment Station. The setup consists of a fuel supply vessel pressurized by compressed nitrogen, a Dantec laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system to measure the centerline velocity of fuel, a quartz tube for optical access, and a Cosworth IC 5460 to control the injector. The detector on the LDA system is capable of resolving Doppler bursts as short as 6μs, depending on the level of seeding, thus giving a detailed time/velocity profile.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Quality Checks and Procedures to Maximize Data Accuracy

2006-04-03
2006-01-1346
Cylinder pressure data is so completely integral to the combustion system development process that ensuring measurements of the highest possible accuracy is of paramount importance. Three main areas of the pressure measurement and analysis process control the accuracy of measured cylinder pressure and its derived metrics: 1) Association of the pressure data to the engine's crankshaft position or cylinder volume 2) Pegging, or referencing, the pressure sensor output to a known, absolute pressure level 3) The raw, relative pressure output of the piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensor Certain cylinder pressure-based metrics, such as mean effective pressures (MEP) and heat release parameters, require knowledge of the cylinder volume associated with the sampled pressure data. Accurate determination of the cylinder volume is dependent on knowing the rotational position of the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Design of a Rapid Prototyping Engine Management System for Development of Combustion Feedback Control Technology

2006-04-03
2006-01-0611
Combustion feedback using cylinder pressure sensors, ion current sensors or alternative sensing techniques is actively under investigation by the automotive industry to meet future legislative emissions requirements. One of the drawbacks of many rapid prototyping engine management systems is their available analog interfaces, often limited to 10-12 bits with limited bandwidth, sampling rate and very simple anti-aliasing filters. Processing cylinder pressure or other combustion feedback sensors requires higher precision, wider bandwidths and more processing power than is typically available. For these reasons, Ricardo in collaboration with GM Research has developed a custom, high precision analog input subsystem for the rCube rapid prototyping control system that is specifically targeted at development of combustion feedback control systems.
Technical Paper

Bolt-load Retention Testing of Magnesium Alloys for Automotive Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0072
For automotive applications at elevated temperatures, the need for sufficient creep resistance of Mg alloys is often associated with retaining appropriate percentages of initial clamp loads in bolt joints. This engineering property is often referred to as bolt-load retention (BLR); BLR testing is a practical method to quantify the bolt load with time for engineering purposes. Therefore, standard BLR test procedures for automotive applications are desired. This report summarizes the effort in the Structural Cast Magnesium Development (SCMD) project under the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), to provide a technical basis for recommending a general-purpose and a design-purpose BLR test procedures for BLR testing of Mg alloys for automotive applications. The summary includes results of factors influencing BLR and related test techniques from open literature, automotive industry and research carried out in this laboratory project.
Technical Paper

On the Potential of Low Heat Rejection DI Diesel Engines to Reduce Tail-Pipe Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0920
Heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls constitutes a significant portion of the overall energy losses over the working cycle of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. In the last few decades, numerous research efforts have been devoted to investigating the prospects of boosting efficiency by insulating the combustion chamber. Relatively few studies have focused on the prospects of reducing emissions by applying combustion chamber insulation. A main purpose of this study is to assess the potential of reducing in-cylinder soot as well as boosting aftertreatment performance by means of partially insulating the combustion chamber. Based on the findings from a conceptual study, a Low Heat Rejection (LHR) design, featuring a Nimonic 80A insert into an Aluminum piston, was developed and tested experimentally at various loads in a single-cylinder Hatz-engine.
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