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Technical Paper

Concept and Implementation of a Robust HCCI Engine Controller

2009-04-20
2009-01-1131
General Motors recently demonstrated two driveable test vehicles powered by a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. HCCI combustion has the potential of a significant fuel economy benefit with reduced after-treatment cost. However, the biggest challenge of realizing HCCI in vehicle applications is controlling the combustion process. Without a direct trigger mechanism for HCCI's flameless combustion, the in-cylinder mixture composition and temperature must be tightly controlled in order to achieve robust HCCI combustion. The control architecture and strategy that was implemented in the demo vehicles is presented in this paper. Both demo vehicles, one with automatic transmission and the other one with manual transmission, are powered by a 2.2-liter HCCI engine that features a central direct-injection system, variable valve lift on both intake and exhaust valves, dual electric camshaft phasers and individual cylinder pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Observer Design for Fuel Reforming in HCCI Engines Using a UEGO Sensor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1132
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion shows a high potential of reducing both fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Many works have been devoted to extend the HCCI operation range in order to maximize its fuel economy benefit. Among them, fuel injection strategies that use fuel reforming to increase the cylinder charge temperature to facilitate HCCI combustion at low engine loads have been proposed. However, to estimate and control an optimal amount of fuel reforming in the cylinder of an HCCI engine proves to be challenging because the fuel reforming process depends on many engine variables. It is conceivable that the amount of fuel reforming can be estimated since it correlates with the combustion phasing which in turn can be measured using a cylinder pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Backpressure Estimation for an Internal Combustion Engine with a Variable Geometry Turbo Charger

2009-04-20
2009-01-0732
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the key approaches applied to reduce emissions for an internal combustion engine. Recirculating a desired amount of EGR requires accurately estimating EGR mass flow. This can be calculated either from the gas flow equation of an orifice, or from the difference between charge air mass flow and fresh air mass flow. Both calculations need engine exhaust pressure as an input variable. This paper presents a method to estimate exhaust pressure for a variable geometry turbo charged diesel engine. The method is accurate and simple to fit production ECU application, therefore, saves cost of using a physical sensor.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Cu-Based SCR/DPF Technology for Diesel Exhaust Emission Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-0072
Recently, a new technology, termed 2-way SCR/DPF by the authors, has been developed by several catalyst suppliers for diesel exhaust emission control. Unlike a conventional emission control system consisting of an SCR catalyst followed by a catalyzed DPF, a wall-flow filter is coated with SCR catalysts for controlling both NOx and PM emissions in a single catalytic converter, thus reducing the overall system volume and cost. In this work, the potential and limitations of the Cu/Zeolite-based SCR/DPF technology for meeting future emission standards were evaluated on a pick-up truck equipped with a prototype light-duty diesel engine.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Brake Apply System Response and Aero-Acoustic Performance Considerations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0821
Over the past decade, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and an ever increasing need by original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers to differentiate themselves in the marketplace. This differentiation is increasingly accomplished by introducing new technology while continually improving the performance of existing automotive systems. In the area of automotive brake system design, and, in particular, the brake apply subsystem, an increased focus has been placed on the development of electrohydraulic apply systems and brake-by-wire systems to replace traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Nevertheless, the traditional brake apply systems, especially vacuum-based or pneumatic systems, will continue to represent the majority of brake apply system production volume into the foreseeable future, which underscores the need to improve the performance and application of these traditional systems in passenger cars and light-trucks.
Journal Article

Late Intake Valve Closing as an Emissions Control Strategy at Tier 2 Bin 5 Engine-Out NOx Level

2008-04-14
2008-01-0637
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Engine with Direct Injection

2008-04-14
2008-01-0132
General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 engine has been upgraded to provide substantial improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions for the 2008 model year Cadillac CTS and STS. The fundamental change was a switch from traditional manifold-port fuel injection (MPFI) to spark ignition direct injection (SIDI). Additional modifications include enhanced cylinder head and intake manifold air flow capacities, optimized camshaft profiles, and increased compression ratio. The SIDI fuel system presented the greatest opportunities for system development and optimization in order to maximize improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions. In particular, the injector flow rate, orifice geometry, and spray pattern were selected to provide the optimum balance of high power and torque, low fuel consumption, stable combustion, low smoke emissions, and robust tolerance to injector plugging.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

Development and Control of Electro-hydraulic Fully Flexible Valve Actuation System for Diesel Combustion Research

2007-10-29
2007-01-4021
Fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system, often referred to as camless valvetrain, employs electronically controlled actuators to drive the intake and/or exhaust valves. This technology enables the engine controller to tailor the valve event according to the engine operating condition in real-time to improve fuel economy, emissions and performance. At GM Research and Development Center, we have developed laboratory electro-hydraulic FFVA systems for single cylinder gasoline engines. The objective of this work is to develop a FFVA system for advanced diesel combustion research. There are three major differences between gasoline and diesel engines in terms of applying the FFVA systems. First, the orientation of the diesel engine valves and the location of the fuel injection system complicate the packaging issue. Second, the clearance between the valves and the piston for diesel engines are extremely small.
Technical Paper

An Engineering Method for Part-load Engine Simulation

2007-10-29
2007-01-4102
This work provides an effective engineering method of building a part-load engine simulation model from a wide-open throttle (WOT) engine model and available dynamometer data. It shows how to perform part-load engine simulation using optimizer for targeted manifold absolute air pressure (MAP) on a basic matrix of engine speed and MAP. Key combustion parameters were estimated to cover the entire part-load region based on affordable assumptions and limitations. Engine rubbing friction and pumping friction were combined to compare against the motoring torque. The emission data from GM dynamometer laboratory were used to compare against engine simulation results after attaching the RLT sensor to record emission data in the engine simulation model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Recompression and Fuel Reforming in a SIDI-HCCI Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1878
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a combustion concept which has the potential for efficiency comparable to a DI Diesel engine with low NOx and soot emissions. However, HCCI is difficult to control, especially at low speeds and loads. One way to assist with combustion control and to extend operation to low speed and loads is to close the exhaust valve before TDC of the exhaust stroke, trapping and recompressing some of the hot residual. Further advantages can be attained by injecting the fuel into this trapped, recompressed mixture, where chemical reactions occur that improve ignitability of the subsequent combustion cycle. Even further improvement in the subsequent combustion cycle can be achieved by applying a spark, leading to a spark-assisted HCCI combustion concept.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Managing Vehicle Mass throughout the Development Process and Vehicle Lifecycle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1721
Managing (minimizing and optimizing) the total mass of a vehicle is recognized as a critical task during the development of a new vehicle, as well as throughout its production lifecycle. This paper summarizes a literature review of, and investigation into, the strategies, methods and best practices for achieving low total mass in new vehicle programs, and/or mass reductions in existing production vehicle programs. Empirical and quantitative data and examples from the automotive manufacturers and suppliers are also provided in support of the material presented.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Rotor Crossdrilling on Brake Performance

2006-04-03
2006-01-0691
A review of available information on the effect that brake rotor crossdrilling has on brake performance reveals a wide range of claims on the subject, ranging from ‘minimal effect, cosmetic only’ to substantially improving brake cooling and fade resistance. There are also several theories on why brake rotor crossdrilling could improve fade performance, including crossdrill holes providing a path for ‘de-gassing’ of the brake lining material and increasing the mechanical interaction, or ‘grip’ of the lining material on the rotor. This paper reviews three case studies in which the opportunity arose to compare the performance of brake systems with crossdrilled versus non crossdrilled brake rotors in otherwise identical brake corner designs. The effect of brake rotor crossdrilling on brake cooling, brake output, brake fade, wet brake output, and brake wear rates were studied using both on-vehicle and dynamometer data.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Quality Checks and Procedures to Maximize Data Accuracy

2006-04-03
2006-01-1346
Cylinder pressure data is so completely integral to the combustion system development process that ensuring measurements of the highest possible accuracy is of paramount importance. Three main areas of the pressure measurement and analysis process control the accuracy of measured cylinder pressure and its derived metrics: 1) Association of the pressure data to the engine's crankshaft position or cylinder volume 2) Pegging, or referencing, the pressure sensor output to a known, absolute pressure level 3) The raw, relative pressure output of the piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensor Certain cylinder pressure-based metrics, such as mean effective pressures (MEP) and heat release parameters, require knowledge of the cylinder volume associated with the sampled pressure data. Accurate determination of the cylinder volume is dependent on knowing the rotational position of the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Buoyancy Driven Flow in a Simplified Underhood - Part II, Numerical Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1607
This paper describes the numerical results for a simplified underhood buoyancy driven flow. The simplified underhood geometry consists of an enclosure, an engine block and two exhaust cylinders mounted along the sides of the engine block. The flow condition is set up in such a way that it mimics the buoyancy driven flow condition in the underhood environment when the vehicle is parked in a windbreak with the engine shut down. The experimental measurements for temperature and velocity of the same configuration were documented in the Part I of the same title. Present study focuses on the numerical issues of calculating temperature and flow field for the same flow configuration. The predicted temperature and velocity were compared with the available measured data. The mesh sizes, mesh type and the orders of spatial and temporal accuracy of the numerical setup are discussed.
Technical Paper

Design of a Rapid Prototyping Engine Management System for Development of Combustion Feedback Control Technology

2006-04-03
2006-01-0611
Combustion feedback using cylinder pressure sensors, ion current sensors or alternative sensing techniques is actively under investigation by the automotive industry to meet future legislative emissions requirements. One of the drawbacks of many rapid prototyping engine management systems is their available analog interfaces, often limited to 10-12 bits with limited bandwidth, sampling rate and very simple anti-aliasing filters. Processing cylinder pressure or other combustion feedback sensors requires higher precision, wider bandwidths and more processing power than is typically available. For these reasons, Ricardo in collaboration with GM Research has developed a custom, high precision analog input subsystem for the rCube rapid prototyping control system that is specifically targeted at development of combustion feedback control systems.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0522
Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

Power-Based Noise Reduction Concept and Measurement Techniques

2005-05-16
2005-01-2401
This paper presents a Power-Based Noise Reduction (PBNR) concept and uses PBNR to set vehicle acoustic specifications for sound package design. This paper starts with the PBNR definition and describes the correct measurement techniques. This paper also derives the asymptotic relationships among PBNR, conventional noise reduction (NR), and sound transmission loss, for a simple case consisting of the source, path, and receiver subsystems. The advantages of using PBNR over conventional Noise Reduction (NR) are finally demonstrated in vehicle measurement examples.
Technical Paper

On the Potential of Low Heat Rejection DI Diesel Engines to Reduce Tail-Pipe Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0920
Heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls constitutes a significant portion of the overall energy losses over the working cycle of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. In the last few decades, numerous research efforts have been devoted to investigating the prospects of boosting efficiency by insulating the combustion chamber. Relatively few studies have focused on the prospects of reducing emissions by applying combustion chamber insulation. A main purpose of this study is to assess the potential of reducing in-cylinder soot as well as boosting aftertreatment performance by means of partially insulating the combustion chamber. Based on the findings from a conceptual study, a Low Heat Rejection (LHR) design, featuring a Nimonic 80A insert into an Aluminum piston, was developed and tested experimentally at various loads in a single-cylinder Hatz-engine.
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