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Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Buoyancy Driven Flow in a Simplified Underhood - Part II, Numerical Study

This paper describes the numerical results for a simplified underhood buoyancy driven flow. The simplified underhood geometry consists of an enclosure, an engine block and two exhaust cylinders mounted along the sides of the engine block. The flow condition is set up in such a way that it mimics the buoyancy driven flow condition in the underhood environment when the vehicle is parked in a windbreak with the engine shut down. The experimental measurements for temperature and velocity of the same configuration were documented in the Part I of the same title. Present study focuses on the numerical issues of calculating temperature and flow field for the same flow configuration. The predicted temperature and velocity were compared with the available measured data. The mesh sizes, mesh type and the orders of spatial and temporal accuracy of the numerical setup are discussed.
Technical Paper

Overhead Sliding Video Screen Monitor

A novel longitudinally sliding overhead video screen monitor was developed to address consumer needs for vehicles equipped with rear seat entertainment and long length sunroofs. Long length sunroof openings in vehicles are causing engineers to mount video screen monitors in locations other than the overhead. Typically, they are mounted on the floor console or on the back of front seat head restraints. Floor console mounted video screen monitors generally do not provide a comfortable viewing distance or angle for second and third row occupants. Head restraint mounted video monitors cause issues with seat shake and two monitors adds to the vehicle cost unnecessarily. The mountable sliding video monitor assembly comprises of a video display screen, brackets for mounting the monitor, a pair of tracks that are movable with respect to each other, a series of ball bearings, and a roof mounting bracket. The inner main track is adapted for mounting the pair of tracks to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development and Field Performance of Indy Race Car Head Impact Padding

The close-fitting cockpit of the modern Indy car single seat race car has the potential to provide a high level of head and neck impact protection in rear and side impacts. Crash investigation has shown that a wide variety of materials have been used as the padding for these cockpits and, as a result, produced varying outcomes in crashes. Additionally, these pads have not always been positioned for optimal performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the head impact performance of a variety of energy-absorbing padding materials under impact conditions typical of Indy car rear impacts and to identify superior materials and methods of improving their performance as race car head pads. An extensive series of tests with the helmeted Hybrid III test dummy head and neck on an impact mini-sled was conducted to explore head padding concepts.
Technical Paper

Guidelines for Jury Evaluations of Automotive Sounds

The following document is a set of guidelines intended to be used as a reference for the practicing automotive sound quality (SQ) engineer with the potential for application to the field of general consumer product sound quality. Practicing automotive sound quality engineers are those individuals responsible for understanding and/or conducting the physical and perceptual measurement of automotive sound. This document draws upon the experience of the four authors and thus contains many “rules-of-thumb” which the authors have found to work well in their many automotive related sound quality projects over the past years. When necessary, more detailed publications are referenced. The intent of publication of this document is to provide a reference to assist in automotive sound quality work efforts and to solicit feedback from the general sound quality community as to the completeness of the material presented.
Technical Paper

Rollover Crash Tests-The Influence of Roof Strength on Injury Mechanics

Eight lateral dolly rollover tests were conducted on 1983 Chevrolet Malibusata nominal speed of 51.5 km/h (32 mi/h). Four of the vehicles had rollcages, and four had standard production roofs. Unrestrained outboard front GM Hybrid ill dummies with head and neck transducers were used. Numerous cameras documented the vehicle and dummy movements. Detailed vehicle kinematics data allowed quantitative analysis of the conditions for head and neck loads. For both roof structures, the dummies moved upward and outward from their seats due to rotation and acceleration of the vehicle. High head/neck loads were measured when the head contacted a part of the car experiencing a large change in velocity, often that part of the car which struck the ground. The results of this work indicate that roof strength is not an important factor in the mechanics of head/neck injuries in rollover collisions for unrestrained occupants.