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Technical Paper

Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

2016-09-18
2016-01-1926
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Simulating Neck Injury in Frontal Impact using LS-DYNA

2007-04-16
2007-01-0677
Neck injury assessment is part of the FMVSS208 requirements. Hardware tests are often conducted to validate whether the vehicle safety system meets the requirements. This paper presents a full vehicle finite element model using LS-DYNA, including structural components, restraint system components, and dummies. In the case of a frontal impact at 30deg angle, in the areas of neck compression, neck extension and neck kinematics, it is demonstrated that a good correlation is achieved between the response of a FE dummy in the model and those of ATDs in the physical hardware tests. It is concluded that the math tool may be applied to comprehend test and design variations that may arise throughout a vehicle development lifecycle and to help develop a vehicle restraint system.
Technical Paper

Optimal Mount Selection with Scattered and Bundled Stiffness Rates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0736
The optimal selection of vehicle body and powertrain mounts from “mount libraries” is one of the major undertakings to achieve optimal vehicle dynamics and N&V performance through the reuse of existing mount designs. The great challenges of the process are due to the facts that conventional optimization procedures, either through simulation or DOE, can not be used directly because the stiffness rates of the mounts are scattered and bundled. Sorting out the best through hardware tests is generally unrealistic simply due to the huge number of mount combinations. This paper presents a new approach to the optimal mount selection, and demonstrates through applications that it is efficient and reliable. This approach characterizes a mount by its effective stiffness rate and evaluates its deviation from an associated target. Continuous dummy variables are used to determine the selection targets through conventional processes for performance optimization.
Technical Paper

Custom Real-Time Interface Blockset Development in Matlab/Simulink for On-Target Rapid Prototyping

2006-04-03
2006-01-0169
In GM R&D Powertrain/Engine Control Group, rapid prototyping controller (RPC) systems with Matlab/Simulink are used extensively to design, simulate and implement advanced engine control algorithms and models. However, those RPC systems use powerful microprocessors with large amounts of RAM contrary to engine control modules (ECM) in production vehicles. Therefore, a thorough analysis on the comparatively much more complicated algorithms and models cannot be performed during the research stage, since there are not enough tools to enable the smooth transition from Matlab/Simulink to the production type processor. The Real-Time Interface (RTI) Blockset for a production like microprocessor would close the transition gap between rapid prototyping controller systems and production type microprocessors by leveraging the power and popularity of Matlab/Simulink in control engineering world and automatic code generation tools.
Technical Paper

Application of Experimental Transfer Path Analysis and Hybrid FRF-Based Substructuring Model to SUV Axle Noise

2005-04-11
2005-01-1833
This paper describes an axle gear whine noise reduction process that was developed and applied using a combination of experimental and analytical methods. First, an experimental Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) was used to identify major noise paths. Next, modeling and forced response simulation were conducted using the Hybrid FEA-Experimental FRF method known as HYFEX [1]. The HYFEX model consisted of an experimental FRF representation of the frame/body and a finite element (FE) model of the driveline [2] and suspension. The FE driveline model was calibrated using experimental data. The HYFEX model was then used to simulate the axle noise reduction that would be obtained using a modified frame, prior to the availability of a prototype. Hardware testing was used as the final step in the process to confirm the results of the simulation.
Technical Paper

Full Vehicle Finite Element Model 4-Post Durability Analysis

2005-04-11
2005-01-1402
4-Post durability test simulations using a nonlinear FEA model have been executed by engineers responsible for structural durability performance and validation. An integrated Body and Chassis, full FEA model has been used. All components of the test load input were screened and only the most damaging events were incorporated in the simulation. These events included the Potholes, Belgian Block Tracks, Chatter Bump Stops, Twist Ditches, and Driveway Ramps. The CAE technology Virtual Proving Ground (eta/VPG®*) was used to model the full system and the 4-Post test fixtures. The nonlinear dynamic FE solver LS-DYNA** was used in this analysis. The fatigue damage of each selected event was calculated separately and then added together according to the test schedule. Due to the lack of stress/strain information from hardware test, only the analyzed fatigue damage results of the baseline model were scaled to correlate with physical test data.
Technical Paper

PEM Fuel Cell System Solutions for Transportation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0373
PEM Fuel Cell technology has been advancing rapidly during the last several years as evidenced by various vehicle demonstrations by the major automotive companies. As the development continues to bring hardware to automotive system level solutions, many engineering challenges arise. This paper will deal with two (2) of these areas from an automotive system level perspective: Thermal Management and the Fuel Cell Stack. Both of these sub-system areas are critical to the success of the technology in meeting the requirements of tomorrow's automotive customer.
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