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Technical Paper

Compatibility Study of Fluorinated Elastomers in Automatic Transmission Fluids

A compatibility study was conducted on fluorinated elastomers (FKM and FEPM) in various Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF). Representative compounds from various FKM families were tested by three major FKM raw material producers - DuPont Performance Elastomers (DPE), Dyneon and Solvay. All involved FKM compounds were tested in a newly released fluid (ATF-A) side-by-side with conventional transmission fluids, at 150°C for various time intervals per ASTM D471. In order to evaluate the fluid compatibility limits, some FKM's were tested as long as 3024 hrs, which is beyond the normal service life of seals. Tensile strength and elongation were monitored as a function of ATF exposure time. The traditional dipolymers and terpolymers showed poor resistance to the new fluid (ATF-A). Both types demonstrated significant decreases in strength and elongation after extended fluid exposure at 150°C.
Technical Paper

Plating on Plastics - Exterior Trim Part Properties

Chrome plated automotive exterior parts continue to be popular. A good understanding of the properties of the unplated and plated parts is required to have the lowest cost successful design. In this work, traditional mechanical properties are compared between plated and unplated ABS and ABS+PC grades of plastic. Additional findings are shared for the thermal growth properties that are important to the designer who is trying to minimize gaps to adjacent components and for the engineer who wants the plated parts to resist cracking or peeling. Finally, some bend testing results are reviewed to understand better the susceptibility of the chrome plated plastics to crack when bent. In total, these results will help the exterior trim part designers optimize for cost, fit and finish.
Technical Paper

Improved Simulation of Local Necks in Quick Plastic Forming

Two alternative finite element formulations are described which consider the influence of normal stress components on sheet deformations in Quick Plastic Forming [1]. The new formulations, single field bricks and multi-field shells, were implemented in the forming simulation program PAM-STAMP [2] using a non-linear viscoelastic constitutive relation [3,4]. Simulations of two industrial components indicate that both new elements simulate local necking more accurately than the standard shells which ignore normal stresses. The multi-field shells require slightly more calculation time than the standard shells and significantly less than equivalent brick models.
Technical Paper

Forming Simulation and Validation of Laminated Steel Panels

Laminated steel has been increasingly applied in automotive products for vibration and noise reduction. One of the major challenges the laminated steel poses is how to simulate forming processes and predict formability severity with acceptable correlation in production environment, which is caused by the fact that a thin polymer core possesses mechanical properties with significant difference in comparison with that of steel skins. In this study a cantilever beam test is conducted for investigating flexural behavior of the laminated steel and a finite element modeling technique is proposed for forming simulation of the laminated steel. Two production panels are analyzed for formability prediction and the results are compared with those from the try-out for validation. This procedure demonstrates that the prediction and try-out are in good agreement for both panels.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Effect of Thread Forming Process in Cast Aluminum

Two thread forming processes, rolling and cutting, were studied for their effects on fatigue in cast aluminum 319-T7. Material was excised from cylinder blocks and tested in rotating-bending fatigue in the form of unnotched and notched specimens. The notched specimens were prepared by either rolling or cutting to replicate threads in production-intent parts. Cut threads exhibited conventional notch behavior for notch sensitive materials. In contrast, plastic deformation induced by rolling created residual compressive stresses in the notch root and significantly improved fatigue strength to the point that most of the rolled specimens broke outside the notch. Fractographic and metallographic investigation showed that cracks at the root of rolled notches were deflected upon initiation. This lengthened their incubation period, which effectively increased fatigue resistance.
Technical Paper

Wear Test Method for Developing Plastic Materials for Applications Wherein a Plastic Part is Rotating or Reciprocating Against a Metal Surface

The wear test introduced in this paper can be used to determine and rank PV (pressure time velocity) capability of plastic materials for applications where a plastic part is rotating or reciprocating against a metal surface. It provides an accelerated test method to evaluate the wear performance of plastic materials. A single test can provide tribological information at multiple PV conditions. The tribological information obtained from this method includes coefficient of friction, PV (pressure times velocity) limits, and interface temperature profile. This test is currently used by General Motors Corporation to develop plastic materials for transmission thrust washer and dynamic seal applications. The test is running in two sequences (A & B), capable of a PV range from 50,000 psi-ft/min 500,000 psi-ft/min, under dry conditions. The PV steps in sequence A are combinations of high pressure and low velocity - for applications where high loads are expected, such as thrust washers.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Development of Quick Plastic Forming

A computer assisted development technique for Quick Plastic Forming parts [1] is described, based on the simulation program PAM-STAMP [2]. The technique allows thickness changes during forming to be accurately considered in the development process without physical trials. Process pressure cycles, which provide for maximal material formability, can be determined with a single simulation. The paper describes new program features, which reduce modeling effort and increase simulation accuracy. Various validation examples and industrial case studies are also presented, demonstrating current capabilities.
Technical Paper

Free Expansion Bulge Testing of Tubes For Automotive Hydroform Applications

Free expansion of straight tubes is the simplest test to evaluate tube properties for hydroforming applications and to provide basic understanding of the mechanics of tube hydroforming. A circular cylindrical tube is sealed at both ends and fluid, usually water, is pumped into the tube to increase its internal pressure to bulge and burst the tube. Previous numerical simulations of the free expansion tube test were limited to modeling the midsection of the tube under various assumptions of deformation path. The simulation results obtained deviated from the experimental results under all simulation conditions considered. A new model is developed in this paper in which the whole tube is simulated instead of considering only its mid-section. Judged by the pressure-expansion relations, the model accurately predicted free expansion hydroforming tests results.
Technical Paper

A Novel Design Concept of a Lateral Sliding Bucket Seat on Roller Mechanisms

A novel lateral sliding vehicle bucket seat was developed to address consumer needs for improved facile access to third row seats in minivans and sport utility vehicles. The concept provides for a second row bucket seat to slide laterally across a vehicle floor by roller mechanisms that roll across steel rails that transverse the vehicle floor. The system consists of two T-section type steel rails mounted parallel to each other at a distance equal to the seat riser support attachment features. The seat risers contain a roller mechanism that enables contact with the cylindrical portion of the steel rails. Each steel rail contains rectangular openings spaced appropriately to allow the seat latching mechanisms to engage securely. The seat riser supports at the rear include a releasable clamping mechanism hook that engages and disengages into the rectangular openings of the steel rails.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Countermeasures and Packaging Limits for the FMVSS201U

Different countermeasure designs for reducing the HIC (d) and to comply with FMVSS201U have been evaluated in many component-level studies by suppliers and OEMs. This study presents guidelines to support future countermeasure and interior designs. FMVSS201U has changed the way OEMs design interiors of the vehicles today. Most recently, much more work is being done to find ways to design interiors of the vehicles that comply with FMVSS201U while keeping the interiors aesthetically pleasing, attaining driver comfort and meeting driver visibility requirements. Introduction of side-rail airbags has further affected countermeasure design and packaging. This study focuses on several countermeasure designs in the side-rail region as used in a mid-sized vehicle implemented to meet FMVSS201U requirements and their efficiency with respect to Head Injury Criterion (HIC) reduction given a fixed packaging space.
Technical Paper

Plastic Material Modeling for FMVSS 201 Simulation

This paper examines the effect of rate dependence of material parameters on FMVSS 201 simulation using LS-DYNA with the exiting elasto-plastic material models and user subroutines. The material parameters investigated include the yield stress, Young's modulus and failure strain. The effect of yield criterion is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Application of Elastomeric Components for Noise and Vibration Isolation in the Automotive Industry

Elastomeric isolators are used in a variety of different applications to reduce noise and vibration. To use isolators effectively requires the product design and development engineer to satisfy multiple objectives, which typically include packaging restrictions, environmental criteria, limitations on motion control, load requirements, and minimum fatigue life, in addition to vibration isolation performance. An understanding of elastomeric material properties and the methods used to characterize elastomeric component behavior is necessary to achieve desired performance. Typical design criteria and functional objectives for various isolator applications, including powertrain mounts, suspension control arm bushings, shock absorber bushings, exhaust hangers, flexible couplings, cradle mounts, body mounts and vibration dampers are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Recovery of Selected Engineering Plastics from Automotive Shredder Residue Using Skin Flotation Technology

Recovery of metals from automobile shredder residue (ASR) is currently being applied to over 11 million end of life vehicles (ELV) in North America. However, most plastics from these vehicles become landfill. The Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP), an effort of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors, as part of the USCAR initiative, has been conducting research to recover plastics from this ASR feed stream. The VRP has been working with Recovery Plastics International (RPI), to investigate automated plastic separations. RPI has been developing processes that would allow for fully automated recovery of target engineering plastics. The portion of the process developed for separating the engineering plastics is called skin flotation. This technology can separate engineering plastics even if the materials have the exact same density. A pilot production line has been set up for processing a variety of commercial ASR materials at RPI in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA).