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Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Journal Article

Safety Analysis of Software-intensive Motion Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0756
The auto industry has had decades of experience with designing safe vehicles. The introduction of highly integrated features brings new challenges that require innovative adaptations of existing safety methodologies and perhaps even some completely new concepts. In this paper, we describe some of the new challenges that will be faced by all OEMs and suppliers. We also describe a set of generic top-level potential hazards that can be used as a starting point for the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of a vehicle software-intensive motion control system. Based on our experience with the safety analysis of a system of this kind, we describe some general categories of hazard causes that are considered for software-intensive systems and can be used systematically in developing the PHA.
Technical Paper

A Three-Pillar Framework for Model-Based Engine Control System Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-1624
This paper presents a comprehensive Matlab/Simulink-based framework that affords a rapid, systematic, and efficient engine control system development process including automated code generation. The proposed framework hinges on three essential pillars: 1 ) an accurate model for the target engine, 2) a toolset for systematic control design, and 3) a modular system architecture that enhances feature reusability and rapid algorithm deployment. The proposed framework promotes systematic model-based algorithm development and validation in virtual reality. Within this context, the framework affords integration and evaluation of the entire control system at an early development stage, seamless transitions across inherently incompatible product development stages, and rapid code generation for production target hardware.
Technical Paper

A Flexible Engine Control Architecture for Model-based Software Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-1623
The fierce competition and shifting consumer demands require automotive companies to be more efficient in all aspects of vehicle development and specifically in the area of embedded engine control system development. In order to reduce development cost, shorten time-to-market, and meet more stringent emission regulations without sacrificing quality, the increasingly complex control algorithms must be transportable and reusable. Within an efficient development process it is necessary that the algorithms can be seamlessly moved throughout different development stages and that they can be easily reused for different applications. In this paper, we propose a flexible engine control architecture that greatly boosts development efficiency.
Technical Paper

Software Testing Strategies for Model-Based Chassis Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0505
Model-based design and development is emerging in the automotive industry, largely revealing its popularity in chassis control systems [1]. Although it is an efficient and accepted design tool for chassis systems, proper processes and strategies need to be in place to ensure the integrity and correctness of the production software. This paper describes software testing strategies for complex chassis control systems in a model-based environment. In detail, it highlights various testing methods for different phases, such as unit testing and integration testing. It will also address issues and challenges that were faced with each method and propose possible solutions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Steer-by-Wire System for the GM Sequel

2006-04-03
2006-01-1173
Steer-by-wire systems (SBW) offer the potential to enhance steering functionality by enabling features such as automatic lane keeping, park assist, variable steer ratio, and advanced vehicle dynamics control. The lack of a steering intermediate shaft significantly enhances vehicle architectural flexibility. These potential benefits led GM to include steer-by-wire technology in its next generation fuel cell demonstration vehicle, called “Sequel.” The Sequel's steer-by-wire system consists of front and rear electromechanical actuators, a torque feedback emulator for the steering wheel, and a distributed electronic control system. Redundancy of sensors, actuators, controllers, and power allows the system to be fault-tolerant. Control is provided by multiple ECU's that are linked by a fault-tolerant communication system called FlexRay. In this paper, we describe the objectives for fault tolerance and performance that were established for the Sequel.
Technical Paper

Design of a Rapid Prototyping Engine Management System for Development of Combustion Feedback Control Technology

2006-04-03
2006-01-0611
Combustion feedback using cylinder pressure sensors, ion current sensors or alternative sensing techniques is actively under investigation by the automotive industry to meet future legislative emissions requirements. One of the drawbacks of many rapid prototyping engine management systems is their available analog interfaces, often limited to 10-12 bits with limited bandwidth, sampling rate and very simple anti-aliasing filters. Processing cylinder pressure or other combustion feedback sensors requires higher precision, wider bandwidths and more processing power than is typically available. For these reasons, Ricardo in collaboration with GM Research has developed a custom, high precision analog input subsystem for the rCube rapid prototyping control system that is specifically targeted at development of combustion feedback control systems.
Technical Paper

Testing Embedded Engine Controllers Using Programmable Test Techniques

2005-04-11
2005-01-0075
Control System testing determines whether the embedded controller (software and its HWIO / hardware system) are operating according to specification. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) has increased its span of test coverage through the use of automated testing. Further use of this type of testing is advised to enhance quality in a field that is rapidly growing more complex.
Technical Paper

Distributed Control System Development for FlexRay-based Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1279
FlexRay is a new communication subsystem for future in-vehicle controls. There is a lack of mature model-based development methodologies to build complex FlexRay-based systems. In this paper we describe an end-to-end model-based development process for building a complex FlexRay-based distributed control system. We describe this in the context of safety critical x-by-wire systems for a realistic automotive application. This involves: control system modeling, functional simulation, and distributed software development. We first describe the process of functional and physical architecture design. Next we discuss the software development process dealing with software to hardware allocation, as well as scheduling of software and communication tasks on a time-triggered communication bus under stringent practical restrictions. We conclude by considering the integration issues relating to joint OEM/supplier development of distributed control systems.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rapid Prototyping Controller-based Full-Authority Diesel Engine Controller

2005-04-11
2005-01-1344
A rapid prototyping controller (RPC) based, full-authority, diesel control system is developed, implemented, tested and validated on FTP cycle. As rapid prototyping controller, dSPACE Autobox is coupled with a fast processor based slave for lower level I/O control and a collection of in-house designed interface cards for signal conditioning. The base software set implemented mimics the current production code for a production diesel engine. This is done to facilitate realistic and accurate comparison of production algorithms with new control algorithms to be added on future products. The engine is equipped with all the state-of-the art subsystems found in a modern diesel engine (common rail fuel injection, EGR, Turbocharger etc.).
Technical Paper

Robust Electronic Control System Design Requires Signal Delivery Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-0892
Signal delivery is the means of translating a physical parameter from a sensor measurement to the application software in the electronic controller. Signal delivery is also translating a digital word from the application software to an actuator response. In both cases, there are many transform functions along the path that will introduce noise, error, and non-linearity. This paper will discuss the importance of understanding the error and sensitivity to variation that signal delivery analysis provides. The analysis will direct design change to improve control system robustness as well as decisions for failure events.
Technical Paper

Brake and Cruise System Integration using Robust Engineering

2003-03-03
2003-01-1095
This paper presents a project that was done to solve an integration problem between a brake system and a cruise control system on a GM vehicle program, each of which was supplied by a different supplier. This paper presents how the problem was resolved using a CAE tool which was a combination of formulated MS/Excel spreadsheet, Overdrive (GM internal code), and iSIGHT of Engineous Software Inc, which is a process integrator and process automator. A sensitivity study of system reliability was conducted using iSIGHT. The most sensitive factor was found through the sensitivity study. Thereafter, a Robust design was obtained. The recommended Robust Design was implemented in the vehicle program, which led to a substantial cost saving. The CAE software tool (the combination) developed through the problem solving process will be used to ensure quality of brake and cruise system performance for future vehicle programs.
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