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Journal Article

CVJ and Knuckle Design Optimization to Protect Inboard Wheel Bearing Seals from Splash

2016-09-18
2016-01-1956
For higher mileage vehicles, noise from contaminant ingress is one of the largest durability issues for wheel bearings. The mileage that wheel bearing sealing issues increase can vary due to multiple factors, such as the level of corrosion for the vehicle and the mating components around the wheel bearing. In general, sealing issues increase after 20,000 to 30,000 km. Protecting the seals from splash is a key step in extending bearing life. Benchmarking has shown a variety of different brake corner designs to protect the bearing from splash. This report examines the effect of factors from different designs, such as the radial gap between constant velocity joint (CVJ) slinger and the knuckle, knuckle labyrinth height and varying slinger designs to minimize the amount of splash to the bearing inboard seal. This report reviews some of the bearing seal failure modes caused by splash.
Technical Paper

Application of Principle Component Analysis to Low Speed Rear Impact - Design for Six Sigma Project at General Motors

2009-04-20
2009-01-1204
This study involves an application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) conducted in support of a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project. Primary focus of the project is to optimize seat parameters that influence Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) whiplash performance. During the DFSS study, the project team identified a need to rank order critical design factors statistically and establish their contribution to LSRI performance. It is also required to develop a transfer function for the LSRI rating in terms of test response parameters that can be used for optimization. This statistical approach resulted in a reliable transfer function that can applied across all seat designs and enabled us to separate vital few parameters from several many.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

Axiomatic Design for a Total Robust Development Process

2009-04-20
2009-01-0793
In this article, the authors illustrate the benefits of axiomatic design (AD) for robust optimization and how to integrate axiomatic design into a total robust design process. Similar to traditional robust design, the purpose of axiomatic design is to improve the probability of a design in meeting its functional targets at early concept generation stage. However, axiomatic design is not a standalone method or tool and it needs to be integrated with other tools to be effective in a total robust development process. A total robust development process includes: system design, parameter design, tolerance design, and tolerance specifications [1]. The authors developed a step-by-step procedure for axiomatic design practices in industrial applications for consistent and efficient deliverables. The authors also integrated axiomatic design with the CAD/CAE/statistical/visualization tools and methods to enhance the efficiency of a total robust development process.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Improvement Using New Simulation Technologies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0981
Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Volume Morphing to Compensate Stamping Springback

2009-04-20
2009-01-0982
A common occurrence in computer aided design is the need to make changes to an existing CAD model to compensate for shape changes which occur during a manufacturing process. For instance, finite element analysis of die forming or die tryout results may indicate that a stamped panel springs back after the press line operation so that the final shape is different from nominal shape. Springback may be corrected by redesigning the die face so that the stamped panel springs back to the nominal shape. When done manually, this redesign process is often time consuming and expensive. This article presents a computer program, FESHAPE, that reshapes the CAD or finite element mesh models automatically. The method is based on the technique of volume morphing pioneered by Sederberg and Parry [Sederberg 1986] and refined in [Sarraga 2004]. Volume morphing reshapes regions of surfaces or meshes by reshaping volumes containing those regions.
Technical Paper

Robust Analysis of Clamp Load Loss in Aluminum Threads due to Thermal Cycling

2009-04-20
2009-01-0989
A DFSS study identified a new mechanism for clamp load loss in aluminum threads due to thermal cycling. In bolted joints tightened to yield, the difference in thermal expansion between the aluminum and steel threads can result in a loss of clamp load with each thermal cycle. This clamp load loss is significantly greater than the loss that can be explained by creep alone. A math model was created and used to conduct a robust analysis. This analysis led to an understanding of the design factors necessary to reduce the cyclic clamp load loss in the aluminum threads. This understanding was then used to create optimized design solutions that satisfy constraints common to powertrain applications. Estimations of clamp load loss due to thermal cycling from the math model will be presented. The estimates of the model will be compared to observed physical test data. A robust analysis, including S/N and mean effect summary will be presented.
Technical Paper

Using a Co-simulation Framework to Enable Software-in-the-Loop Powertrain System Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0520
The Advanced Engineering (AE) group within General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) develops next generation engines and transmissions for automotive and marine products. As a research organization, AE needs to prototype design ideas quickly and inexpensively. To this end, AE has embraced model-based development techniques and is currently investigating the benefits of software in-the-loop (SIL) testing. The underlying obstacle faced in developing a practical SIL system lays in the ability to integrate a plant model with sufficient fidelity together with target application software. ChiasTek worked with AE utilizing their CosiMate tool chain to eliminate these barriers and delivered a flexible SIL system simulation solution.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Test Results for Several Variable-Valve-Actuation Mechanisms

2009-04-20
2009-01-0229
We start our study with a survey of existing variable valve actuation (VVA) devices. We then describe our work, taken place over a time period from 2001 to 2007, on several VVA concepts. All of our projects described include pre-design modeling and simulation. Also, for each one of the proposed designs, a bench-top motorized test fixture was built and ran for proof of concept. Our projects represent a mixture of exploratory research and production-related development work. They can be classified in four broad categories: discrete-step systems; mechanical continuously-variable systems; active stationary-hydraulic lash adjusters; cam-driven hydraulic-lost-motion mechanism. These devices differ in their complexity and versatility but offer a spectrum of design solutions applicable to a range of products. Specific attributes of these different approaches are analyzed and discussed, and some test results are presented.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake System Performance during Race Track/High Energy Driving Conditions with Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Neural-Network Subsystem Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-0860
In racetrack conditions, brake systems are subjected to extreme energy loads and energy load distributions. This can lead to very high friction surface temperatures, especially on the brake corner that operates, for a given track, with the most available traction and the highest energy loading. Individual brake corners can be stressed to the point of extreme fade and lining wear, and the resultant degradation in brake corner performance can affect the performance of the entire brake system, causing significant changes in pedal feel, brake balance, and brake lining life. It is therefore important in high performance brake system design to ensure favorable operating conditions for the selected brake corner components under the full range of conditions that the intended vehicle application will place them under. To address this task in an early design stage, it is helpful to use brake system modeling tools to analyze system performance.
Technical Paper

Design and CFD Analysis of an NHRA Funny Car Body

2008-12-02
2008-01-3003
This paper describes the methodology used to design and perform a CFD analysis of a Chevrolet Impala SS Funny Car body. This body was designed for the purpose of making it available for teams to race it in the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) drag racing series beginning with the 2007 race season. Several challenges were presented in this project: (1) This was the first time a General Motors drag racing body for use in professional classes (Funny Car or otherwise) was ever designed in CAD. (2) The body was originally designed as a 2007 Chevrolet Monte Carlo. After the tooling was completed, changes in Chevrolet’s product lineup required that the body be changed to a 2007 Impala SS. (3) Budget constraints precluded CFD analysis until after the bodies were already being manufactured. There were several teams that raced the new body during the 2007 race season. One of these teams won the Funny Car Driver’s Championship.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Torsional Vibration of the Compliant Sprocket in Balance Chain Drive Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1529
The work presented in this paper outlines the development of a simulation model to aid in the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives. A design with dual-mass flywheel and a crank-mounted compliant chain sprocket greatly reduces interior noise levels due to chain meshing. However, experimental observations showed the compliant sprocket can enter into resonance and generate excessive vibration energy during startup. Special features are incorporated into the compliant sprocket design to absorb and dissipate this energy. Additional damper spring rate, high hysteresis and large motion angle that overlap the driving range may solve the problem during engine start-up period. This work develops a simulation model to help interpret the measured data and rank the effectiveness of the design alternatives. A Multibody dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

Improved Simulation of Local Necks in Quick Plastic Forming

2008-04-14
2008-01-1441
Two alternative finite element formulations are described which consider the influence of normal stress components on sheet deformations in Quick Plastic Forming [1]. The new formulations, single field bricks and multi-field shells, were implemented in the forming simulation program PAM-STAMP [2] using a non-linear viscoelastic constitutive relation [3,4]. Simulations of two industrial components indicate that both new elements simulate local necking more accurately than the standard shells which ignore normal stresses. The multi-field shells require slightly more calculation time than the standard shells and significantly less than equivalent brick models.
Technical Paper

Drum Brake Out of Roundness Reduction to Improve Brake Pulsation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0825
The drum brake pulsation is an issue that may cause a major customer complaint. One of the root causes of the drum pulsation is the deformation of the drum to an out of roundness (OOR) shape during the wheel-drum-axle assembly process under the presence of the uneven wheel flatness. This paper summarizes the newly developed OOR simulation method using ABAQUS and the counter-measures to reduce the OOR, and subsequently pulsation, by identifying the drum design parameter effects on OOR.
Technical Paper

Model Driven Testing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0743
While the industry has recognized the value of modeling and code generation, the role of verification has taken a limited second tier role. Model Based Testing (MBT) is typically discussed in the context of automation of testing activities to eliminate the burden of generation and execution of tests. Unfortunately, this objective of effort minimization has skewed solutions away from using quality as a guiding metric. Alternatively, we have identified the simple objective of increasing the quality of testing practices and productivity of developers. In the following paper we introduce the integration of traditional software quality practices of functional, unit, and regression testing with the automated, model-driven world. This approach enables a quantitative approach to model driven software quality. The result is a robust technique that enables confident use of model-based development for production applications.
Technical Paper

A Unified Approach to Forward and Lane-Change Collision Warning for Driver Assistance and Situational Awareness

2008-04-14
2008-01-0204
A unified approach to collision warning due to in-lane and neighboring traffic is presented. It is based on the concept of velocity obstacles, and is designed to alert the driver of a potential front collision and against attempting a dangerous lane change maneuver. The velocity obstacle represents the set of the host velocities that would result in collision with the respective static or moving vehicle. Potential collisions are simply determined when the velocity vector of the host vehicle penetrates the velocity obstacle of a neighboring vehicle. The generality of the velocity obstacle and its simplicity make it an attractive alternative to competing warning algorithms, and a powerful tool for generating collision avoidance maneuvers. The velocity obstacle-based warning algorithm was successfully tested in simulations using real sensor data collected during the Automotive Collision Avoidance System Field Operational Test (ACAS FOT) [10].
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