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Journal Article

Exhaust Valve & Valve Seat Insert – Development for an Industrial LPG Application

2009-05-13
2009-01-1602
Automotive engines are regularly utilized in the material handling market where LPG is often the primary fuel used. When compared to gasoline, the use of gaseous fuels (LPG and CNG) as well as alcohol based fuels, often result in significant increases in valve seat insert (VSI) and valve face wear. This phenomenon is widely recognized and the engine manufacturer is tasked to identify and incorporate appropriate valvetrain material and design features that can meet the ever increasing life expectations of the end-user. Alternate materials are often developed based on laboratory testing – testing that may not represent real world usage. The ultimate goal of the product engineer is to utilize accelerated lab test procedures that can be correlated to field life and field failure mechanisms, and then select appropriate materials/design features that meet the targeted life requirements.
Journal Article

Safety Analysis of Software-intensive Motion Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0756
The auto industry has had decades of experience with designing safe vehicles. The introduction of highly integrated features brings new challenges that require innovative adaptations of existing safety methodologies and perhaps even some completely new concepts. In this paper, we describe some of the new challenges that will be faced by all OEMs and suppliers. We also describe a set of generic top-level potential hazards that can be used as a starting point for the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of a vehicle software-intensive motion control system. Based on our experience with the safety analysis of a system of this kind, we describe some general categories of hazard causes that are considered for software-intensive systems and can be used systematically in developing the PHA.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Brake Apply System Response and Aero-Acoustic Performance Considerations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0821
Over the past decade, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and an ever increasing need by original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers to differentiate themselves in the marketplace. This differentiation is increasingly accomplished by introducing new technology while continually improving the performance of existing automotive systems. In the area of automotive brake system design, and, in particular, the brake apply subsystem, an increased focus has been placed on the development of electrohydraulic apply systems and brake-by-wire systems to replace traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Nevertheless, the traditional brake apply systems, especially vacuum-based or pneumatic systems, will continue to represent the majority of brake apply system production volume into the foreseeable future, which underscores the need to improve the performance and application of these traditional systems in passenger cars and light-trucks.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Application of Magnesium Components in the Automotive Industry: A Strategic Vision

2007-04-16
2007-01-1033
There is an increasing global realization about the need for fuel efficient vehicles. An inexpensive way to accomplish this is through mass reduction, and one of the most effective ways that this can occur is through substituting current materials with magnesium, the lightest structural metal. This document describes the results of a U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) sponsored study [1] that examines why magnesium use has only grown 10% per year and identifies how to promote more widespread commercial applications beyond the 5-6 kg of component currently in vehicles. The issues and concerns which have limited magnesium use are discussed via a series of research and development themes. These address concerns associated with corrosion, fastening, and minimal metalworking/non-traditional casting processing. The automotive and magnesium supplier industries have only a limited ability to develop implementation-ready magnesium components.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0417
Since 2000, an Aluminum Cosmetic Corrosion task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has existed. The task group has pursued the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. A cooperative program uniting OEM, supplier, and consultants has been created and has been supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Prior to this committee's formation, numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels. However, correlations between these laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. Thus, the primary objective of this task group's project was to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates well with in-service performance.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Moving Mesh CFD Study of Semi-truck Passing a Stationary Vehicle with Hood Open

2007-04-16
2007-01-0111
This paper examines the aerodynamic forces on the open hood of a stationary vehicle when another large vehicle, such as an 18-wheel semi-truck, passes by at high speed. The problem of semi-truck passing a parked car with hood open is solved as a transient two-vehicle aerodynamics problem with a Dynamic Moving Mesh (DMM) capability in commercial CFD software package FLUENT. To assess the computational feasibility, a simplified compact car / semi-truck geometry and CFD meshes are used in the first trial example. At 70 mph semi-truck speed, the CFD results indicate a peak aerodynamic force level of 20N to 30N on the hood of the car, and the direction of the net forces and moments on the hood change multiple times during the passing event.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Managing Vehicle Mass throughout the Development Process and Vehicle Lifecycle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1721
Managing (minimizing and optimizing) the total mass of a vehicle is recognized as a critical task during the development of a new vehicle, as well as throughout its production lifecycle. This paper summarizes a literature review of, and investigation into, the strategies, methods and best practices for achieving low total mass in new vehicle programs, and/or mass reductions in existing production vehicle programs. Empirical and quantitative data and examples from the automotive manufacturers and suppliers are also provided in support of the material presented.
Technical Paper

From Algorithms to Software - A Practical Approach to Model-Driven Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-1622
The value of model-based design has been attempted to be communicated for more than a decade. As methods and tools have appeared and disappeared from a series of different vendors it has become apparent that no single vendor has a solution that meets all users’ needs. Recently standards (UML, MDA, MOF, EMF, etc.) have become a dominant force and an alternative to vendor-specific languages and processes. Where these standards have succeeded and vendors have failed is in the realization that they do not provide the answer, but instead provide the foundation to develop the answer. It is in the utilization of these standards and their capability to be customized that companies have achieved success. Customization has occurred to fit organizations, processes, and architectures that leverage the value of model-driven design.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Oxidation/Corrosion Performance of Various Materials for Exhaust System Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0605
Durability requirements for exhaust materials have resulted in the increased use of stainless steels throughout the exhaust system. The conversion of carbon steel exhaust flanges to stainless steel has occurred on many vehicles. Ferritic stainless steels are commonly used for exhaust flanges. Flange construction methods include stamped sheet steel, thick plate flanges and powder metal designs. Flange material selection criteria may include strength, oxidation resistance, weldability and cold temperature impact resistance. Flange geometry considerations include desired stiffness criteria, flange rotation, gasket/sealing technique and vehicle packaging. Both the material selection and flange geometry are considered in terms of meeting the desired durability and cost. The cyclic oxidation performance of the material is a key consideration when selecting flange materials.
Technical Paper

Power-Based Noise Reduction Concept and Measurement Techniques

2005-05-16
2005-01-2401
This paper presents a Power-Based Noise Reduction (PBNR) concept and uses PBNR to set vehicle acoustic specifications for sound package design. This paper starts with the PBNR definition and describes the correct measurement techniques. This paper also derives the asymptotic relationships among PBNR, conventional noise reduction (NR), and sound transmission loss, for a simple case consisting of the source, path, and receiver subsystems. The advantages of using PBNR over conventional Noise Reduction (NR) are finally demonstrated in vehicle measurement examples.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle Exterior Sound Fields by High Frequency Boundary Element Method

2005-05-16
2005-01-2328
With Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) proven to be a powerful tool for airborne noise analysis, the capability of predicting the exterior sound field around a vehicle at high frequencies (the load case in the SEA analysis) is of particular interest to OEMs and suppliers. This paper employs the High Frequency Boundary Element Method (HFBEM) to simulate the scattered exterior sound field distribution due to a monopole source. It is shown that the proposed method is able to efficiently predict the spatial and frequency averaged sound pressure levels reasonably well up to 10 kHz, even at points in the near field of the vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Study of Staircase Fatigue Tests Using Monte Carlo Simulation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0803
The staircase fatigue test method is a well-established, but poorly understood probe for determining fatigue strength mean and standard deviation. The sensitivity of results to underlying distributions was studied using Monte Carlo simulation by repeatedly sampling known distributions of hypothetical fatigue strength data with the staircase test method. In this paper, the effects of the underlying distribution on staircase test results are presented with emphasis on original normal, lognormal, Weibull and bimodal data. The results indicate that the mean fatigue strength determined by the staircase testing protocol is largely unaffected by the underlying distribution, but the standard deviation is not. Suggestions for conducting staircase tests are provided.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2005-04-11
2005-01-0542
A co-operative program initiated by the Automotive Aluminum Alliance and supported by USAMP continues to pursue the goal of establishing an in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion test for finished aluminum auto body panels that provides a good correlation with in-service performance. The program is organized as a task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee. Initially a large reservoir of test materials was established to provide a well-defined and consistent specimen supply for comparing test results. A series of laboratory procedures have been conducted on triplicate samples at separate labs in order to evaluate the reproducibility of the various lab tests. Exposures at OEM test tracks have also been conducted and results of the proving ground tests have been compared to the results in the laboratory tests. Outdoor tests and on-vehicle tests are also in progress. An optical imaging technique is being utilized for evaluation of the corrosion.
Technical Paper

Standard Interfaces and Standard Software Architecture as a Means For “Go Fast” Engineering

2004-10-18
2004-21-0030
The global market pressure of requiring high quality vehicles at lower prices has forced automotive manufacturers to change the way they engineer their products. In the electrical/electronic part of the automobile business, a strategy of reusing common hardware and software components was needed to support these market pressures. The General Motors strategy was to develop a standard electrical architecture. This paper will identify what a standard electrical architecture is, how a standard electrical architecture helps General Motors meet market demands, and issues that General Motors encountered in trying to implement this standard electrical architecture.
Technical Paper

Development of the SAE Biaxial Wheel Test Load File

2004-03-08
2004-01-1578
Recently published SAE Recommended Practice J2562 - SAE Biaxial Wheel Test standardized the terminology, equipment, and test procedure for the biaxial wheel test. This test was originally presented by Fraunhofer Institut Betriebsfestigkeit - LBF (Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability) in SAE paper 830135 “Automotive Wheels, Method and Procedure for Optimal Design and Testing”. The first release of SAE J2562 included a generic, scalable load file applicable to wheels designed for five to eight passenger vehicles with capacity to carry a proportional amount of luggage or ballast. Future releases of SAE J2562 would include two additional load files; one applicable to light trucks that have substantial cargo capacity and one for sports cars typically limited to two passengers and marginal luggage. This report details the process used to develop the SAE Biaxial Wheel Test Load File for passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of a Small-Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine - Full-Load Operation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0034
Full-load operation of a small-displacement spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine was thoroughly investigated by means of computational analysis and engine measurements. The performance is affected by many different factors, which can be grouped as those pertaining to volumetric efficiency, to mixing and stratification, and to system issues, respectively. Volumetric efficiency is affected by flow losses, tuning and charge cooling. Charge cooling due to spray vaporization is often touted as the most significant benefit of direct-injection on full-load performance. However, if wall wetting occurs, this benefit may be completely negated or even reversed. The fuel-air mixing is strongly affected by the injection timing and characteristics at lower engine speeds, while at higher engine speeds the intake flow dominates the transport of fuel particles and resultant vapor distribution. A higher injector flow rate enhances mixing especially at higher engine speeds.
Technical Paper

e-Thermal: A Vehicle-Level HVAC/PTC Simulation Tool

2004-03-08
2004-01-1510
This paper describes a vehicle-level simulation model for climate control and powertrain cooling developed and currently utilized at GM. The tool was developed in response to GM's need to speed vehicle development for HVAC and powertrain cooling to meet world-class program execution timing (18 to 24 month vehicle development cycles). At the same time the simulation tool had to complement GM's strategy to move additional engineering responsibility to its HVAC suppliers. This simulation tool called “e-Thermal” was quickly developed and currently is in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper describes GM's objectives and requirements for developing e-Thermal. The structure of the tool and the capabilities of the simulation tool modules (refrigeration, front end airflow, passenger compartment, engine, transmission, Interior air handling …) is introduced. Model data requirements and GM's strategy for acquiring component data are also described.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Noise Testing and Analysis Correlation

2003-05-05
2003-01-1616
Brake squeal has been a persistent quality issue for automobile OEMs and brake system suppliers. The ability to model and measure brake squeal dynamics is of utmost importance in brake squeal reduction efforts. However, due to the complex nature of brake squeal and the wide frequency range in which it occurs, it is difficult to accurately correlate and update analytical models to experimental results. This paper introduces a systematic and rigorous correlation and updating process that yields FE models, which can accurately reproduce high-frequency brake squeal dynamics.
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