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Journal Article

Fast and Efficient Detection of Shading of the Objects

2015-04-14
2015-01-0371
The human thermal comfort, which has been a subject of extensive research, is a principal objective of the automotive climate control system. Applying the results of research studies to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environment in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The exposure to solar radiation is known to alter the thermal environment in the passenger compartment. A photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in the automotive climate control system to measure the solar radiation exposure of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The erroneous information from a sensor however can cause thermal discomfort to the occupants. The erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to the opaque vehicle body elements is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

2009-11-02
2009-22-0016
The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Journal Article

Exhaust Valve & Valve Seat Insert – Development for an Industrial LPG Application

2009-05-13
2009-01-1602
Automotive engines are regularly utilized in the material handling market where LPG is often the primary fuel used. When compared to gasoline, the use of gaseous fuels (LPG and CNG) as well as alcohol based fuels, often result in significant increases in valve seat insert (VSI) and valve face wear. This phenomenon is widely recognized and the engine manufacturer is tasked to identify and incorporate appropriate valvetrain material and design features that can meet the ever increasing life expectations of the end-user. Alternate materials are often developed based on laboratory testing – testing that may not represent real world usage. The ultimate goal of the product engineer is to utilize accelerated lab test procedures that can be correlated to field life and field failure mechanisms, and then select appropriate materials/design features that meet the targeted life requirements.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Journal Article

Shudder Durability of a Wet Launch Clutch Part II - Durability Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-0330
Under the initiative of the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR§) Transmission Working Group, a collaborative effort was made with LuK USA LLC to study the influence of the friction interface parameters on the shudder durability of a wet launch clutch. Clutch configurations with different combinations of four friction materials (A, B, C and D), three groove patterns (waffle, radial and waffle-parallel) and two separator plate conditions (nitrided and non-nitrided) were considered. Durability testing consisted of a test profile, with 110 kJ energy per test cycle, developed earlier in this project. Materials A, B and C with nitrided separator plates reached the end of test criteria for the torque gradient and showed shudder. Materials B and C were more wear resistant as compared to materials A and D. The loss of friction coefficient (μ) was lower for materials B, C and D as compared to material A.
Journal Article

Safety Analysis of Software-intensive Motion Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0756
The auto industry has had decades of experience with designing safe vehicles. The introduction of highly integrated features brings new challenges that require innovative adaptations of existing safety methodologies and perhaps even some completely new concepts. In this paper, we describe some of the new challenges that will be faced by all OEMs and suppliers. We also describe a set of generic top-level potential hazards that can be used as a starting point for the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of a vehicle software-intensive motion control system. Based on our experience with the safety analysis of a system of this kind, we describe some general categories of hazard causes that are considered for software-intensive systems and can be used systematically in developing the PHA.
Journal Article

The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0458
A key element of General Motors' Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy is the electrification of the automobile. The objectives of this strategy are reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and increased energy security/diversification. The introduction of hybrid vehicles was one of the first steps as a result of this strategy. To determine future opportunities and direction, an extensive study was completed to better understand the ability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV) to address societal challenges. The study evaluated real world representative driving datasets to understand actual vehicle usage. Vehicle simulations were conducted to evaluate the merits of PHEV and E-REV configurations. As derivatives of conventional full hybrids, PHEVs have the potential to deliver a significant reduction in petroleum usage.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Brake Apply System Response and Aero-Acoustic Performance Considerations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0821
Over the past decade, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and an ever increasing need by original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers to differentiate themselves in the marketplace. This differentiation is increasingly accomplished by introducing new technology while continually improving the performance of existing automotive systems. In the area of automotive brake system design, and, in particular, the brake apply subsystem, an increased focus has been placed on the development of electrohydraulic apply systems and brake-by-wire systems to replace traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Nevertheless, the traditional brake apply systems, especially vacuum-based or pneumatic systems, will continue to represent the majority of brake apply system production volume into the foreseeable future, which underscores the need to improve the performance and application of these traditional systems in passenger cars and light-trucks.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Managing Vehicle Mass throughout the Development Process and Vehicle Lifecycle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1721
Managing (minimizing and optimizing) the total mass of a vehicle is recognized as a critical task during the development of a new vehicle, as well as throughout its production lifecycle. This paper summarizes a literature review of, and investigation into, the strategies, methods and best practices for achieving low total mass in new vehicle programs, and/or mass reductions in existing production vehicle programs. Empirical and quantitative data and examples from the automotive manufacturers and suppliers are also provided in support of the material presented.
Technical Paper

A Three-Pillar Framework for Model-Based Engine Control System Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-1624
This paper presents a comprehensive Matlab/Simulink-based framework that affords a rapid, systematic, and efficient engine control system development process including automated code generation. The proposed framework hinges on three essential pillars: 1 ) an accurate model for the target engine, 2) a toolset for systematic control design, and 3) a modular system architecture that enhances feature reusability and rapid algorithm deployment. The proposed framework promotes systematic model-based algorithm development and validation in virtual reality. Within this context, the framework affords integration and evaluation of the entire control system at an early development stage, seamless transitions across inherently incompatible product development stages, and rapid code generation for production target hardware.
Technical Paper

From Algorithms to Software - A Practical Approach to Model-Driven Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-1622
The value of model-based design has been attempted to be communicated for more than a decade. As methods and tools have appeared and disappeared from a series of different vendors it has become apparent that no single vendor has a solution that meets all users’ needs. Recently standards (UML, MDA, MOF, EMF, etc.) have become a dominant force and an alternative to vendor-specific languages and processes. Where these standards have succeeded and vendors have failed is in the realization that they do not provide the answer, but instead provide the foundation to develop the answer. It is in the utilization of these standards and their capability to be customized that companies have achieved success. Customization has occurred to fit organizations, processes, and architectures that leverage the value of model-driven design.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Moving Mesh CFD Study of Semi-truck Passing a Stationary Vehicle with Hood Open

2007-04-16
2007-01-0111
This paper examines the aerodynamic forces on the open hood of a stationary vehicle when another large vehicle, such as an 18-wheel semi-truck, passes by at high speed. The problem of semi-truck passing a parked car with hood open is solved as a transient two-vehicle aerodynamics problem with a Dynamic Moving Mesh (DMM) capability in commercial CFD software package FLUENT. To assess the computational feasibility, a simplified compact car / semi-truck geometry and CFD meshes are used in the first trial example. At 70 mph semi-truck speed, the CFD results indicate a peak aerodynamic force level of 20N to 30N on the hood of the car, and the direction of the net forces and moments on the hood change multiple times during the passing event.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Application of Magnesium Components in the Automotive Industry: A Strategic Vision

2007-04-16
2007-01-1033
There is an increasing global realization about the need for fuel efficient vehicles. An inexpensive way to accomplish this is through mass reduction, and one of the most effective ways that this can occur is through substituting current materials with magnesium, the lightest structural metal. This document describes the results of a U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) sponsored study [1] that examines why magnesium use has only grown 10% per year and identifies how to promote more widespread commercial applications beyond the 5-6 kg of component currently in vehicles. The issues and concerns which have limited magnesium use are discussed via a series of research and development themes. These address concerns associated with corrosion, fastening, and minimal metalworking/non-traditional casting processing. The automotive and magnesium supplier industries have only a limited ability to develop implementation-ready magnesium components.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0417
Since 2000, an Aluminum Cosmetic Corrosion task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has existed. The task group has pursued the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. A cooperative program uniting OEM, supplier, and consultants has been created and has been supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Prior to this committee's formation, numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels. However, correlations between these laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. Thus, the primary objective of this task group's project was to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates well with in-service performance.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Cycle to Cycle Variability of the Inlet Flow of Fuel Injectors Using LDA

2006-10-16
2006-01-3314
The focus of this research effort was to develop a technique to measure the cyclic variability of the mass injected by fuel injectors. Successful implementation of the measurement technique introduced in this paper can be used to evaluate injectors and improve their designs. More consistent and precise fuel injectors have the potential to improve fuel efficiency, engine performance, and reduce emissions. The experiments for this study were conducted at the Michigan State University Automotive Research Experiment Station. The setup consists of a fuel supply vessel pressurized by compressed nitrogen, a Dantec laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system to measure the centerline velocity of fuel, a quartz tube for optical access, and a Cosworth IC 5460 to control the injector. The detector on the LDA system is capable of resolving Doppler bursts as short as 6μs, depending on the level of seeding, thus giving a detailed time/velocity profile.
Technical Paper

Global Research and Development: GM Case Study India

2006-10-16
2006-21-0086
Global R&D is in its infant stages. Senior executives and their organizations need to develop deeper understanding of the opportunities and challenges of off-shoring R&D. While global pressure will continue to mount to deliver more value at ever lower cost, the labor cost arbitrage break in countries such as China or India will not last forever. The fundamental challenge is to use the current low-cost advantage to build rapidly a sustainable technology, product and service advantage. This requires the development of a balanced local growth strategy that is well adapted to the regional strengths while ensuring a seamless global integration of people, organizations, and processes. This paper focuses on the build-up of GM's R&D activities in India with an emphasis on research in one of the key thrust areas in GM R&D - Automotive Electronics, Controls, and Software. Lessons learned apply also to development.
Technical Paper

Bolt-load Retention Testing of Magnesium Alloys for Automotive Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0072
For automotive applications at elevated temperatures, the need for sufficient creep resistance of Mg alloys is often associated with retaining appropriate percentages of initial clamp loads in bolt joints. This engineering property is often referred to as bolt-load retention (BLR); BLR testing is a practical method to quantify the bolt load with time for engineering purposes. Therefore, standard BLR test procedures for automotive applications are desired. This report summarizes the effort in the Structural Cast Magnesium Development (SCMD) project under the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), to provide a technical basis for recommending a general-purpose and a design-purpose BLR test procedures for BLR testing of Mg alloys for automotive applications. The summary includes results of factors influencing BLR and related test techniques from open literature, automotive industry and research carried out in this laboratory project.
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