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Technical Paper

Accuracy of Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer Measurements Measurements in the SULEV Region

The super-ultra-low-emission-vehicle (SULEV) non-methane organic gas (NMOG) hydrocarbon exhaust standard as legislated by the state of California LEV II regulations is 10 milligrams per mile. This requires that the associative instrumentation must be capable of accurately and precisely determining total hydrocarbons (THC) concentrations on the order of 10 parts per billion-carbon (ppbC) for vehicle tests run under optimum conditions on a bag mini-diluter (BMD) test site. The flame ionization detector (FID) is the standard instrument used in the measurement of THC. Currently, there are many instrument manufacturers that produce these types of analyzers. This paper studies the limit of detection and accuracy capabilities of one of these instruments, the Beckman 400A FID. In addition, the paper shows evidence that supports that this “state of technology” as described by this instrument, is sufficient to meet the demands of the today's most stringent, vehicle emission standards.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Improved Bag Mini-Diluter System for Low Level Emissions Measurements

General Motors Corporation has installed its first production Bag Mini-Diluter Emission Test Site. This site is capable of conducting chassis dynamometer tests in either traditional CFV mode, or BMD mode, and a combination mode in which both technologies sample simultaneously. This paper discusses ambient interferent (Hydrocarbon and humidity) contamination issues which impact data resolution and measurement accuracy as emission standards are lowered. Solutions are recommended which compensate for these effects. This document examines new technologies required for accurate BMD measurements, and presents data obtained from running the site in the dual sampling mode utilizing a four-cylinder PZEV vehicle.