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Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sample Bag Hydrocarbon Emissions and Carbon Dioxide Permeation Properties

The equipment for collecting dilute exhaust samples involves the use of bag materials (i.e., Tedlar®) that emit hydrocarbons that contaminate samples. This study identifies a list of materials and treatments to produce bags that reduce contamination. Based on the average emission rates, baked Tedlar®, Capran® treated with alumina deposition, supercritical CO2 extracted Kynar® and supercritical CO2 extracted Teflon NXT are capable of achieving the target hydrocarbon emission rate of less than 15 ppbC per 30 minutes. CO2 permeation tests were also performed. Tedlar, Capran, Kynar and Teflon NXT showed comparable average permeation rates. Based on the criteria of HC emission performance, changes in measured CO2 concentration, ease of sealing, and ease of surface treatment, none of the four materials could be distinguished from one another.
Technical Paper

Accuracy of Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer Measurements Measurements in the SULEV Region

The super-ultra-low-emission-vehicle (SULEV) non-methane organic gas (NMOG) hydrocarbon exhaust standard as legislated by the state of California LEV II regulations is 10 milligrams per mile. This requires that the associative instrumentation must be capable of accurately and precisely determining total hydrocarbons (THC) concentrations on the order of 10 parts per billion-carbon (ppbC) for vehicle tests run under optimum conditions on a bag mini-diluter (BMD) test site. The flame ionization detector (FID) is the standard instrument used in the measurement of THC. Currently, there are many instrument manufacturers that produce these types of analyzers. This paper studies the limit of detection and accuracy capabilities of one of these instruments, the Beckman 400A FID. In addition, the paper shows evidence that supports that this “state of technology” as described by this instrument, is sufficient to meet the demands of the today's most stringent, vehicle emission standards.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of New Bag Sampling Materials for Low Level Emissions Measurements

Copolymer materials have been used for the collection of vehicle exhaust gas samples since the inception of regulatory standards. Some of these copolymers contain N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), which is added to improve the physical properties of the copolymer and eliminate manufacturing problems. DMA is highly soluble in water, and in effect is rinsed from the emission bag surface by humid exhaust gas samples. This study shows that DMA can thus incorrectly add to test vehicle overall hydrocarbon emissions. The DMA contribution can be significant for lower level emission vehicles. This study introduces a new bag material, KYNAR®, which significantly reduces this interference.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Improved Bag Mini-Diluter System for Low Level Emissions Measurements

General Motors Corporation has installed its first production Bag Mini-Diluter Emission Test Site. This site is capable of conducting chassis dynamometer tests in either traditional CFV mode, or BMD mode, and a combination mode in which both technologies sample simultaneously. This paper discusses ambient interferent (Hydrocarbon and humidity) contamination issues which impact data resolution and measurement accuracy as emission standards are lowered. Solutions are recommended which compensate for these effects. This document examines new technologies required for accurate BMD measurements, and presents data obtained from running the site in the dual sampling mode utilizing a four-cylinder PZEV vehicle.