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Technical Paper

Applications of Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation in Automotive Embedded Systems

2020-04-14
2020-01-1289
Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation is an advanced technique for development and testing of complex real-time embedded systems. This technique has greatly developed in the last decades and has been more and more used in the automotive industry for algorithm and software development, hardware validation, safety validation, and fault investigation activities. Plant simulation model executes in HiL simulator to provide a virtual vehicle that interacts in an open-loop or closed-loop fashion with the embedded system that is under test. Compared to in-vehicle testing, HiL simulation provides benefits of low cost, high availability, high flexibility, repeatability, and test automation capability. HiL simulation reduces the risk caused by control failure, which is especially important for self-driving control system development and testing. The HiL simulation system is more application specific.
Technical Paper

Development and Correlation of Co-Simulated Plant Models for Propulsion Systems

2020-04-14
2020-01-1416
Model-based system simulations play a critical role in the development process of the automotive industry. They are highly instrumental in developing embedded control systems during conception, design, validation, and deployment stages. Whether for model-in-the-loop (MiL), software-in-the-loop (SiL) or hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) scenarios, high-fidelity plant models are particularly valuable for generating realistic simulation results that can parallel or substitute for costly and time-consuming vehicle field tests. In this paper, the development of a powertrain plant model and its correlation performance are presented. The focus is on the following modules of the propulsion systems: transmission, driveline, and vehicle. The physics and modeling approach of the modules is discussed, and the implementation is illustrated in Amesim software. The developed model shows good correlation performance against test data in dynamic events such as launch, tip-in, tip-out, and gearshifts.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Engine Starting Performance Using High-Power Density Brushless Starter

2020-04-14
2020-01-0459
Modern hybrid technologies, especially mild and micro-hybrids with auto start/stop feature, demand a starter with higher power, better performance and longer life than conventional brush-type starters. In this paper, a new starter design using a brushless motor is proposed. This improves the engine crank performance during autostarts due to lower inertia, higher torque and wider power band capability of the brushless motor, especially at higher speeds. The overall integrated system includes the motor, inverter and controller all packaged in the same form factor of the original starter housing as a “drop-in replacement”. The prototype starter motor is designed to operate at 48V with a peak power of 4kW but can be designed to operate at the standard 12V. This paper will describe in detail the functionalities of the overall system and the simulation and experimental results of the prototype that was tested on a 4-cylinder engine in a production crossover vehicle.
Technical Paper

Minimizing Disturbance Detection Time in Hydraulic Systems

2020-04-14
2020-01-0263
In a hydraulic system, parameter variation, contamination, and/or operating conditions can lead to instabilities in the pressure response. The resultant erratic pressure profile reduces performance and can lead to hardware damage. Specifically, in a transmission control system, the inability to track pressure commands can result in clutch or variator slip which can cause driveline disturbance and/or hardware damage. A variator is highly sensitive to slip and therefore, it is advantageous to identify such pressure events quickly and take remedial actions. The challenge is to detect the condition in the least amount of time while minimizing false alarms. A Neyman-Pearson and an energy detector (based on auto-correlation) are evaluated for the detection of pressure disturbances. The performance of the detectors is measured in terms of speed of detection and robustness to measurement noise.
Technical Paper

Creating Driving Scenarios from Recorded Vehicle Data for Validating Lane Centering System in Highway Traffic

2020-04-14
2020-01-0718
The adoption of simulation is critical to reducing development time and enhancing system robustness for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Automotive companies typically have an abundance of real data recorded from a vehicle which is suitable for open-loop simulations. However, recorded data is often not suitable to test closed-loop control systems since the recorded data cannot react to changes in vehicle movement. This paper introduces a methodology to create virtual driving scenarios from recorded vehicle data to enable closed-loop simulation. This methodology is applied to test a lane centering application. A lane centering application helps a driver control steering to stay in the current lane and control acceleration and braking to maintain a set speed or to follow a preceding vehicle. The driver’s vehicle is referred to as the ego vehicle. Other vehicles on the road are referred to as target vehicles.
Journal Article

Virtual Switches and Indicators in Automotive Displays

2020-04-14
2020-01-1362
This paper presents recent advances in automotive microprocessor, operating system, and supporting software technology that supports regulatory and/or functional safety graphics within vehicle cockpit displays. These graphics include “virtual switches” that replace physical switches in the vehicle, as well as “virtual indicators” that replace physical indicator lights. We discuss the functional safety design process and impacts to software and hardware architecture as well as the software design methods to implement End-To-End [E2E] network protection between different ECUs and software processes. We also describe hardware monitoring requirements within the display panel, backlighting, and touch screen and examine an example system design to illustrate the concepts.
Technical Paper

Dynamics of Water Crossover in Fuel Cell and Application to Freeze Driveaway Reliability

2020-04-14
2020-01-0853
Reliable driveaway from frozen condition is one of the challenging design and control problem for fuel cell applications. Different approaches for warmup from frozen conditions have been developed by OEMs, e.g. low voltage inefficient operation, or use of coolant heaters. However, most methods result in water generation which risk icing and blocking the valves and rendering them nonfunctional till they thaw. One such valve is the anode drain valve which is needed to remove water that crosses over across the membrane to anode side. This work discusses characterization of dynamics of water crossover to anode balance of plant via step response experiments on full scale systems, and development of an online estimator to detect onset of anode water crossover via this online observer. In addition, detection via voltage dip-based feedback is also presented.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of High Resistance Connection in Automotive Application

2020-04-14
2020-01-0926
Electrical connections have a normal operational temperature range. A high resistance, such as a poor connection, in an electrical circuit has been reported to cause a temperature increase exceeding normal operational range at the connection. This study measures the temperature increase in a typical automotive bolted battery cable connection with low to zero torque values and simulated high resistance under different load conditions. The torque is changed from maximum design value to 0 Nm and the temperature increase at the connection is measured. The high resistance connections, manually created by adjusting the contacts, are tested for several power loss values at the connection. The temperature rise under these conditions at the connection is measured and subsequently recorded. The maximum temperature increase at the bolted cable connection recorded at low torque values including 0 Nm torque compared to the maximum typical design value of 17 Nm is 10.5 °C.
Technical Paper

A System Safety Perspective into Chevy Bolt’s One Pedal Driving

2019-04-02
2019-01-0133
The Chevy Bolt’s One Pedal Driving feature is a new electrification propulsion enhancement that allows the driver to accelerate, decelerate and hold their vehicle stationary by just using the accelerator pedal. With this new feature, the driver is relieved of having to switch between pressing the accelerator pedal and brake pedal to slow, stop and hold the vehicle stationary. While this feature provides a convenience to the driver, it also presents a paradigm shift in driver engagement and control system responsibility for executing certain functions that the driver was traditionally responsible to perform. Various system safety techniques were involved in the development of such a feature both from a traditional functional safety perspective as well as a Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) perspective.
Technical Paper

Determining the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Benefit of an Adaptive Cruise Control System Using Real-World Driving Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0310
Adaptive cruise control is an advanced vehicle technology that is unique in its ability to govern vehicle behavior for extended periods of distance and time. As opposed to standard cruise control, adaptive cruise control can remain active through moderate to heavy traffic congestion, and can more effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is derived primarily from two physical phenomena: platooning and controlled acceleration. Platooning refers to reductions in aerodynamic drag resulting from opportunistic following distances from the vehicle ahead, and controlled acceleration refers to the ability of adaptive cruise control to accelerate the vehicle in an energy efficient manner. This research calculates the measured greenhouse gas emissions benefit of adaptive cruise control on a fleet of 51 vehicles over 62 days and 199,300 miles.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Distributed Thermal Control System for Power Electronics Components in Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0501
Hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles (BEV) use power electronics (PE) devices to convert between high voltage DC power of the battery and other formats of power. These PE components requires operation within certain temperature range, otherwise, overheating causes component as well as vehicle performance degradation. Therefore, a thermal management system is required for PE components. This paper focuses on the design and development of such a PE components thermal control system. The proposed control system is a distributed thermal control system in which all the PE components are placed in series within one cooling loop. The advantage of the proposed control system is its reduced system complexity, energy efficiency and flexibility to add future PE components. In addition, electric control unit (ECU) are utilized so that complex control algorithms can be implemented.
Technical Paper

Brake System Design for Dedicated BEV Architectures

2018-10-05
2018-01-1870
As fossil fuels dwindle and more electric vehicles enter the market, there is an opportunity to reevaluate the standard brake system. This paper will discuss and compare the differences in brake system sizing between a non-regenerative braking internal combustion engine vehicle and a dedicated battery electric vehicle with regenerative braking. It will use a model derived from component dynamometer testing and vehicle test data of a mid-size production vehicle. The model will be modified for the mass and regenerative braking capabilities of a battery electric vehicle. The contribution of regenerative braking energy will be analyzed and compared to show its impact on component sizing, thermal sizing, and lining life. The detailed design study will calculate the parameters for caliper, rotor design, actuation, etc., that are optimized for 100% regen enabled vehicles.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Hybrid Powertrain for Small and Medium Boats

2018-04-03
2018-01-0373
Hybridization is a mainstream technology for automobiles, and its application is rapidly expanding in other fields. Marine propulsion is one such field that could benefit from electrification of the powertrain. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. The main challenge to accomplish hybridization is the additional weight of the electric components, in particular the batteries. The goal of this project is to replace a conventional 4-stroke turbocharged Diesel engine with a hybrid powertrain, without any penalty in terms of weight, overall dimensions, fuel efficiency, and pollutant emissions. This can be achieved by developing a new generation of 2-Stroke Diesel engines, and coupling them to a state-of-the art electric system. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: opposed piston and loop scavenged engines.
Technical Paper

Supervisory Model Predictive Control of a Powertrain with a Continuously Variable Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0860
This paper describes the design of a supervisory multivariable constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) system for driver requested axle torque tracking with real-time fuel economy optimization that is scheduled for production by General Motors starting in 2018. The control system has been conceived and co-developed by General Motors and ODYS. The control approach consists of a set of linear MPC controllers scheduled in real-time based on powertrain operating conditions. For each MPC controller, a linear model is obtained by system identification with vehicle and dynamometer data. The supervisory MPC coordinates in real time desired Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) ratio and desired engine torque to satisfy the system requirements, based on estimates of axle torque and engine fuel rate, by solving a constrained optimization problem at each sampling step. Each linear MPC controller is equipped with a Kalman filter to reconstruct the system state from available measurements.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control of Turbocharged Gasoline Engines for Mass Production

2018-04-03
2018-01-0875
This paper describes the design of a multivariable, constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) system for torque tracking in turbocharged gasoline engines scheduled for production by General Motors starting in calendar year 2018. The control system has been conceived and co-developed by General Motors and ODYS. The control approach consists of a set of linear MPC controllers scheduled in real time based on engine operating conditions. For each MPC controller, a linear model is obtained by system identification with data collected from engines. The control system coordinates throttle, wastegate, intake and exhaust cams in real time to track a desired engine torque profile, based on measurements and estimates of engine torque and intake manifold pressure.
Technical Paper

A System of Systems Approach to Automotive Challenges

2018-04-03
2018-01-0752
The automotive industry is facing many significant challenges that go far beyond the design and manufacturing of automobile products. Connected, autonomous and electric vehicles, smart cities, urbanization and the car sharing economy all present challenges in a fast-changing environment which the automotive industry must adapt to. Cars no longer are just standalone systems, but have become constituent systems (CS) in larger System of Systems (SoS) context. This is reflected in the emergence of several acronyms such as vehicle-to-everything (V2X), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) expressions. System of Systems are defined systems of interest whose elements (constituent systems) are managerially and operationally independent systems. This interoperating and/or integrated collection of constituent systems usually produce results unachievable by the individual systems alone, for example the use of car batteries as virtual power plants.
Technical Paper

Development of General Motors’ eAssist Gen3 Propulsion System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0422
General Motors’ 3rd generation eAssist propulsion systems build upon the experience gained from the 2nd generation 115v system and the 1st generation 36v system. Extensive architectural studies were conducted to optimize the new eAssist system to maintain the performance and fuel economy gains of the 2nd generation 115v system while preserving passenger and cargo space, and reducing cost. Three diverse vehicle applications have been brought to production. They include two similar pickup trucks with 5.3 liter V8 engines and 8 speed transmissions, a 4-door passenger car with 2.5 liter 4 cylinder normally aspirated gasoline engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission, and a crossover SUV with a 2.0-liter turbocharged engine and 9 speed transmission. The key electrification components are a new water cooled induction motor/generator (MG), new water cooled power electronics module, and two major variants of 86v lithium ion battery packs.
Technical Paper

IGBT Power Modules Evaluation for GM Electrified Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0460
GM has recently developed two types of plug-in electric vehicles. First is an extended range electric vehicle such as the Volt, and the second is a battery electric vehicle such as the Bolt. An overview, of traction inverter and power module used in GM battery electric vehicles, is presented. IGBT power modules are critical components used in traction inverters for driving GM Electrified Vehicles. IGBT power modules are also described in a benchmarking study using key metrics based on horizontal die configuration, layout and vertical thermal stack. Power Module evaluation test set up, procedure and instrumentation used in GM Power Module Lab, Pontiac, Michigan are described. GM Electrification development journey depends on IGBT power module passive test benches; turn on/off energy loss tester, thermal resistance tester, and slow/fast power cycles testers (fast junction temperature change, in seconds, and slow baseplate temperature change, in minutes).
Technical Paper

Transfer Function Generation for Model Abstraction Using Static Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0010
Currently, Model Based Development (MBD) is the de-facto methodology in automotive industry. This has led to conversions of legacy code to Simulink models. Our previous work was related to implementing the C2M tool to automatically convert legacy code to Simulink models. While the tool has been implemented and deployed on few OEM pilot code-sets there were several improvement areas identified w.r.t. the generated models. One of the improvement areas identified was that the generated model used atomic blocks instead of abstracted blocks available in Simulink. E.g. the generated model used an ADD block and feedback loop to represent an integration operation instead of using an integrator block directly. This reduced the readability of the model even though the functionality was correct. Thus, as a user of the model, an engineer would like to see abstract blocks rather than atomic blocks.
Technical Paper

High Power Cell for Mild and Strong Hybrid Applications Including Chevrolet Malibu

2017-03-28
2017-01-1200
Electric vehicles have a strong potential to reduce a continued dependence on fossil fuels and help the environment by reducing pollution. Despite the desirable advantage, the introduction of electrified vehicles into the market place continues to be a challenge due to cost, safety, and life of the batteries. General Motors continues to bring vehicles to market with varying level of hybrid functionality. Since the introduction of Li-ion batteries by Sony Corporation in 1991 for the consumer market, significant progress has been made over the past 25 years. Due to market pull for consumer electronic products, power and energy densities have significantly increased, while costs have dropped. As a result, Li-ion batteries have become the technology of choice for automotive applications considering space and mass is very critical for the vehicles.
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