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Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Engine and Vehicle Hardware Effects on Vehicle Response

2019-04-02
2019-01-1283
As the proliferation of downsized boosted engines continues, it becomes increasingly important to understand how engine and vehicle hardware impact vehicle transient response. Several different methodologies can be used to understand hardware impacts, such as vehicle testing, 0-D vehicle models, and constant engine speed load steps. The next evolution of predicting vehicle transient response is to transition to a system level vehicle analysis by coupling a detailed engine model, utilizing crank angle resolved calculations, with a simple vehicle model. This allows for the evaluation of engine and vehicle hardware effects on vehicle acceleration and the rate of change of vehicle acceleration, or jerk, and the tradeoffs that can be made between the hardware in early program development. By comparing this system level vehicle model to the different methodologies, it can be shown that a system level vehicle analysis allows for higher fidelity evaluations of vehicle transient response.
Technical Paper

Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

2019-04-02
2019-01-0264
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges.
Technical Paper

Crash-induced Loads in Liftgate Latching Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-1333
Automotive liftgate latches have been subject to regulation for minimum strength and inertial resistance requirements since the late 1990’s in the US and globally since the early 2000’s, possibly due to liftgate ejections stemming from the first generation Chrysler minivans which employed latches that were not originally designed with this hazard in mind. Side door latches have been regulated since the 1960’s, and the regulation of liftgate, or back door latches, have been based largely on side door requirements, with the exception of the orthogonal test requirement that is liftgate specific. Based on benchmarking tests of liftgate latches, most global OEM’s design their latches to exceed the minimum regulatory requirements. Presumably, this is based on the need to keep doors closed during crashes and specifically to do so when subjected to industry standard tests.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Twist Spring-back Control with an Unbalanced Post-stretching Approach for Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0806
Twist spring-back would interfere with stamping or assembling procedures for advanced high strength steel. A “homeopathic” resolution for controlling the twist spring-back is proposed using unbalanced post-stretching configuration. Finite element forming simulation is applied to evaluate and compare the performance for each set of unbalanced post-stretching setup. The post-stretching is effectuated by stake bead application. The beads are separated into multiple independent segments, the height and radii of which can be adjusted individually and asymmetrically. Simulation results indicate that the twist spring-back can be effectively controlled by reducing the post-stretching proximate to the asymmetric part area. Its mechanism is qualitatively revealed by stress analyses, that an additional but acceptable cross-sectional spring-back re-balances the sprung asymmetrical geometry to counter the twist effect.
Technical Paper

“Taguchi Customer Loss Function” Based Functional Requirements

2018-04-03
2018-01-0586
Understanding customer expectations is critical to satisfying customers. Holding customer clinics is one approach to set winning targets for the engineering functional measures to drive customer satisfaction. In these clinics, customers are asked to operate and interact with vehicle systems or subsystems such as doors, lift gates, shifters, and seat adjusters, and then rate their experience. From this customer evaluation data, engineers can create customer loss or preference functions. These functions let engineers set appropriate targets by balancing risks and benefits. Statistical methods such as cumulative customer loss function are regularly applied for such analyses. In this paper, a new approach based on the Taguchi method is proposed and developed. It is referred to as Taguchi Customer Loss Function (TCLF).
Technical Paper

A Non-contact and Non-destructive Method to Determine Process Induced Fiber Orientation of Compression Molded SMC

2018-04-03
2018-01-1176
Understanding process induced fiber orientation distribution of composite body panels using nondestructive techniques is of prime interest. A compression molded sheet molding compound (SMC) panel is a good example of composite panels which are heavily affected by the molding process. Determination of the directionally dependent local coefficient of linear thermal expansion by digital image correlation yields information that is utilized to determine the local fiber misorientation and calculate the local SMC tensile modulus. In our current study, this methodology is utilized to determine the directional CLTE, permitting evaluation of the SMC properties in a multitude of directions not possible in destructive testing techniques. After obtaining the directionally dependent CLTE, a micromechanical approach is utilized to calculate the local SMC tensile modulus and glass fiber misorientation angle.
Journal Article

Modeling Forming Limit in Low Stress Triaxiality and Predicting Stretching Failure in Draw Simulation by an Improved Ductile Failure Criterion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0801
A ductile failure criterion (DFC), which defines the stretching failure at localized necking (LN) and treats the critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness, was proposed in a previous study. In this study, the DFC is revisited to extend the model to the low stress triaxiality domain and demonstrates on modeling forming limit curve (FLC) of TRIP 690. Then, the model is used to predict stretching failure in a finite element method (FEM) simulation on a TRIP 690 steel rectangular cup draw process at room temperature. Comparison shows that the results from this criterion match quite well with experimental observations.
Technical Paper

Application of Suspend Mode to Automotive ECUs

2018-04-03
2018-01-0021
To achieve high robustness and quality, automotive ECUs must initialize from low-power states as quickly as possible. However, microprocessor and memory advances have failed to keep pace with software image size growth in complex ECUs such as in Infotainment and Telematics. Loading the boot image from non-volatile storage to RAM and initializing the software can take a very long time to show the first screen and result in sluggish performance for a significant time thereafter which both degrade customer perceived quality. Designers of mobile devices such as portable phones, laptops, and tablets address this problem using Suspend mode whereby the main processor and peripheral devices are powered down during periods of inactivity, but memory contents are preserved by a small “self-refresh” current. When the device is turned back “on”, fully initialized memory content allows the system to initialize nearly instantaneously.
Journal Article

Development of a Lightweight Third-Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (3GAHSS) Vehicle Body Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-1026
This article covers an application of third-generation advanced high-strength steel (3GAHSS) grades to vehicle lightweight body structure development. Design optimization of a vehicle body structure using a multi-scale material model is discussed. The steps in the design optimization and results are presented. Results show a 30% mass reduction potential over a baseline mid-size sedan body side structure with the use of 3GAHSS.
Technical Paper

Measured and LES Motored-Flow Kinetic Energy Evolution in the TCC-III Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0192
A primary goal of large eddy simulation, LES, is to capture in-cylinder cycle-to-cycle variability, CCV. This is a first step to assess the efficacy of 35 consecutive computed motored cycles to capture the kinetic energy in the TCC-III engine. This includes both the intra-cycle production and dissipation as well as the kinetic energy CCV. The approach is to sample and compare the simulated three-dimensional velocity equivalently to the available two-component two-dimensional PIV velocity measurements. The volume-averaged scale-resolved kinetic energy from the LES is sampled in three slabs, which are volumes equal to the two axial and one azimuthal PIV fields-of-view and laser sheet thickness. Prior to the comparison, the effects of sampling a cutting plane versus a slab and slabs of different thicknesses are assessed. The effects of sampling only two components and three discrete planar regions is assessed.
Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

2017-10-08
2017-01-2401
The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Tracked 3-Dimensional Acoustic Probe in the Development of an Automotive Front-of-Dash

2017-06-05
2017-01-1869
During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
Technical Paper

Defining In-Vehicle Location and Functional Attributes of a ‘Button-Style Electronic Automatic Transmission Shifter’ Using DFSS Methodology with Customer Clinic Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1131
The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
Technical Paper

Predicting Forming Limit Curve Using a New Ductile Failure Criterion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0312
Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. The proposed DFC treats localized necking as failure and critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness. Under linear strain path assumption, a method to predict Forming Limit Curve (FLC) is derived from this DFC. With the help of predetermined effect functions, the method only needs a calibration at uniaxial tension. The approach was validated by predicting FLCs for sixteen different aluminum and steel sheet metal materials. Comparison shows that the prediction matches quite well with experimental observations in most cases.
Technical Paper

High Power Cell for Mild and Strong Hybrid Applications Including Chevrolet Malibu

2017-03-28
2017-01-1200
Electric vehicles have a strong potential to reduce a continued dependence on fossil fuels and help the environment by reducing pollution. Despite the desirable advantage, the introduction of electrified vehicles into the market place continues to be a challenge due to cost, safety, and life of the batteries. General Motors continues to bring vehicles to market with varying level of hybrid functionality. Since the introduction of Li-ion batteries by Sony Corporation in 1991 for the consumer market, significant progress has been made over the past 25 years. Due to market pull for consumer electronic products, power and energy densities have significantly increased, while costs have dropped. As a result, Li-ion batteries have become the technology of choice for automotive applications considering space and mass is very critical for the vehicles.
Technical Paper

Hydraulically Damped Rubber Body Mounts with High Lateral Rate for Improved Vehicle Noise, Vibration and Ride Qualities

2013-05-13
2013-01-1906
In today's competitive market, noise and vibration are among the most important parameters that impact the success of a vehicle. In body-on-frame construction vehicles, elastomeric body mounts play a major role in isolating the passenger compartment from road noise, harshness, shake, and other vibrations in the chassis as well as improving ride quality across a wide frequency range. This paper describes the work carried out to design a fluid filled mount with high lateral stiffness that can alter the perceived Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of current production body-on-frame trucks. It was found that the quietness and ride qualities can be significantly improved by positioning the glycol-filled mounts at the anti-node of the frame first vertical bending mode; under the C-pillar intersection with the frame. The performance of mounts in this area is known to be critical to ride quality.
Technical Paper

Varying the Polyurethane Foam Ratio for Better Acoustic Performance and Mass Savings

2011-05-17
2011-01-1736
Flexible molded polyurethane foams are widely used in automotive industry. As porous-elastic materials, they can be used as decoupler layers in conventional sound insulation constructions or as sound absorbers in vehicle trim parts. Flexible molded polyurethane foams are produced by reacting of liquid Isocyanate (Iso) with a liquid Polyol blend, catalysts, and other additives. Their acoustic performance can be changed by varying the mixing ratio, the weight proportion of two components: Iso and Polyol. Consequently, the sound insertion loss (IL) of barrier/foam constructions and acoustic absorption of a single foam layer will vary. In this paper, based on one industry standard flexible molded polyurethane foam process, the relationship between foam mixing ratio and foam acoustic performance is studied in terms of IL and sound absorption test results.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Modeling Approach for Mid-frequency Trim Effects

2011-05-17
2011-01-1719
In traditional FE based structure-borne noise analysis, interior trims are normally modeled as lump masses in the FE structure model and acoustic specific impedance of the trim is assigned to the FE acoustics model when necessary. This simplification has proven to be effective and sufficient for low frequency analysis. However, as the frequency goes into the mid-frequency range, the elastic behavior of the trim may impose some effects on the structural and acoustic responses. The approach described in this paper is based on the structural FE and acoustic SEA coupling analysis developed by ESI, aiming to improve the modeling efficiency for a possible quick turnaround in virtual assessments.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1220
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

HEV Architectures - Power Electronics Optimization through Collaboration Sub-topic: Inverter Design and Collaboration

2010-10-19
2010-01-2309
As the automotive industry quickly moves towards hybridized and electrified vehicles, the optimal integration of power electronics in these vehicles will have a significant impact not only on the cost, performance, reliability, and durability; but ultimately on customer acceptance and market success of these technologies. If properly executed with the right cost, performance, reliability and durability, then both the industry and the consumer will benefit. It is because of these interdependencies that the pace and scale of success, will hinge on effective collaboration. This collaboration will be built around the convergence of automotive and industrial technology. Where real time embedded controls mixes with high power and voltage levels. The industry has already seen several successful collaborations adapting power electronics to the automotive space in target vehicles.
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