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Technical Paper

Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

2019-04-02
2019-01-1156
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. This paper explores the potential of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS) to provide fast control of CA50 in an LTGC engine. Two different compression ratios are used (CR=16:1 and 14:1) that provide high efficiencies and are compatible with mixed-mode SI-LTGC engines. The fuel used is a research grade E10 gasoline (RON 92, MON 85) representative of a regular-grade market gasoline found in the United States. The fuel was supplied with a gasoline-type direct injector (GDI) mounted centrally in the cylinder. To create the PFS, the GDI injector was pulsed twice each engine cycle. First, an injection early in the intake stroke delivered the majority of the fuel (70 - 80%), establishing the minimum equivalence ratio in the charge.
Technical Paper

Development of a Low Loss Clutch for CVT Reverse Function

2019-04-02
2019-01-0774
Continuously variable transmissions (CVT) provide superior fuel economy by enabling internal combustion engines to operate at their “sweet spots”. However, there is still potential to improve CVT system’s mechanical efficiency, and further enhance vehicle-level fuel economy. In the past, extensive research work has focused on the core continuously variator unit (CVU) that includes pulleys and a belt or chain. Another thread of research has centered on optimization of CVT clamping force control to reduce hydraulic system loss. Nonetheless, to the best of our knowledge, very little research has looked into the planetary gear sets and clutches that enable the CVT system to switch between forward, neutral and reverse gears. The state-of-the-art reverse clutch usually consists of multiple friction and steel plates, and is normally open during all forward driving maneuvers. The relative speed between friction and steel plates is identical to turbine speed, which generate spin loss.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Engine and Vehicle Hardware Effects on Vehicle Response

2019-04-02
2019-01-1283
As the proliferation of downsized boosted engines continues, it becomes increasingly important to understand how engine and vehicle hardware impact vehicle transient response. Several different methodologies can be used to understand hardware impacts, such as vehicle testing, 0-D vehicle models, and constant engine speed load steps. The next evolution of predicting vehicle transient response is to transition to a system level vehicle analysis by coupling a detailed engine model, utilizing crank angle resolved calculations, with a simple vehicle model. This allows for the evaluation of engine and vehicle hardware effects on vehicle acceleration and the rate of change of vehicle acceleration, or jerk, and the tradeoffs that can be made between the hardware in early program development. By comparing this system level vehicle model to the different methodologies, it can be shown that a system level vehicle analysis allows for higher fidelity evaluations of vehicle transient response.
Technical Paper

Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

2019-04-02
2019-01-0264
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges.
Technical Paper

Development of an Alternative Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter and Particulate Number

2019-04-02
2019-01-1184
The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, called the Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI), and provide the detailed equation in its initial form. In addition, the PEI will be shown to have a good correlation agreement to PMI. The paper will then give a detailed explanation of the data used to develop it. Initial vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Evaluation of Lower Viscosity ATF in a Planetary Automatic Transmission for Improved Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1296
With continued industry focus on reducing parasitic transmission and driveline losses, detailed studies are required to quantify potential enablers to improve vehicle fuel economy. Investigations were undertaken to understand the influence of lower viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) on transmission efficiency as compared with conventional fluids. The objectives of this study were to quantify the losses of lower viscosity ATF as compared with conventional ATF, and to understand the influence of ATF properties including viscosities, base oil types, and additive packages on fuel efficiency. The transmission efficiency investigations were conducted on a test bench following a vehicle-based break-in of the transmission using a prescribed drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. At low temperature, the lower viscosity ATF showed a clear advantage over the conventional ATF in both spin loss and loaded efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

Virtual Traffic Simulator for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0676
Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies promise a substantial decrease in traffic accidents and traffic jams, and bring new opportunities for improving vehicle’s fuel economy. However, testing autonomous vehicles in a real world traffic environment is costly, and covering all corner cases is nearly impossible. Furthermore, it is very challenging to create a controlled real traffic environment that vehicle tests can be conducted repeatedly and compared fairly. With the capability of allowing testing more scenarios than those that would be possible with real world testing, simulations are deemed safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective. In this work, a full-scale simulation platform was developed to simulate the infrastructure, traffic, vehicle, powertrain, and their interactions. It is used as an effective tool to facilitate control algorithm development for improving CAV’s fuel economy in real world driving scenarios.
Technical Paper

Supervisory Model Predictive Control of a Powertrain with a Continuously Variable Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0860
This paper describes the design of a supervisory multivariable constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) system for driver requested axle torque tracking with real-time fuel economy optimization that is scheduled for production by General Motors starting in 2018. The control system has been conceived and co-developed by General Motors and ODYS. The control approach consists of a set of linear MPC controllers scheduled in real-time based on powertrain operating conditions. For each MPC controller, a linear model is obtained by system identification with vehicle and dynamometer data. The supervisory MPC coordinates in real time desired Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) ratio and desired engine torque to satisfy the system requirements, based on estimates of axle torque and engine fuel rate, by solving a constrained optimization problem at each sampling step. Each linear MPC controller is equipped with a Kalman filter to reconstruct the system state from available measurements.
Technical Paper

Spark Assist for CA50 Control and Improved Robustness in a Premixed LTGC Engine – Effects of Equivalence Ratio and Intake Boost

2018-04-03
2018-01-1252
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can deliver high efficiencies, with ultra-low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, controlling the combustion timing and maintaining robust operation remains a challenge for LTGC engines. One promising technique to overcoming these challenges is spark assist (SA). In this work, well-controlled, fully premixed experiments are performed in a single-cylinder LTGC research engine at 1200 rpm using a cylinder head modified to accommodate a spark plug. Compression ratios (CR) of 16:1 and 14:1 were used during the experiments. Two different fuels were also tested, with properties representative of premium- and regular-grade market gasolines. SA was found to work well for both CRs and fuels. The equivalence ratio (ϕ) limits and the effect of intake-pressure boost on the ability of SA to compensate for a reduced Tin were studied. For the conditions studied, ϕ=0.42 was found to be most effective for SA.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control of Turbocharged Gasoline Engines for Mass Production

2018-04-03
2018-01-0875
This paper describes the design of a multivariable, constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) system for torque tracking in turbocharged gasoline engines scheduled for production by General Motors starting in calendar year 2018. The control system has been conceived and co-developed by General Motors and ODYS. The control approach consists of a set of linear MPC controllers scheduled in real time based on engine operating conditions. For each MPC controller, a linear model is obtained by system identification with data collected from engines. The control system coordinates throttle, wastegate, intake and exhaust cams in real time to track a desired engine torque profile, based on measurements and estimates of engine torque and intake manifold pressure.
Technical Paper

Learning Gasoline Direct Injector Dynamics Using Artificial Neural Networks

2018-04-03
2018-01-0863
In today’s race for improved fuel economy and lower emissions from gasoline engines, precise metering of delivered fuel is essential. Gasoline Direct Injection fuel systems provide the means for improved combustion efficiency through mixture preparation and better atomization. These improvements can be achieved from both increasing fuel pressure and using multiple injection events, which significantly reduce the required energizing time per injection, and in a number of cases, force the injector to operate at less than full stroke. When the injector operates in this condition, the influence of variation in injector dynamics account for a large percentage of the delivered fuel and require compensation to ensure accurate fuel delivery. Injector dynamics such as opening delay and closing time are influenced by operating conditions such as fuel pressure, energizing time, and temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Profile Modulation on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption

2018-04-03
2018-01-0379
Variable valve actuation is a focus to improve fuel efficiency for passenger car engines. Various means to implement early and late intake valve closing (E/LIVC) at lower load operating conditions is investigated. The study uses GT Power to simulate on E/LIVC on a 2.5 L gasoline engine, in-line four cylinder, four valve per cylinder engine to evaluate different ways to achieve Atkinson cycle performance. EIVC and LIVC are proven methods to reduce the compression-to-expansion ratio of the engine at part load and medium load operation. Among the LIVC strategies, two non-traditional intake valve lift profiles are investigated to understand their impact on reduction of fuel consumption at low engine loads. Both the non-traditional lift profiles retain the same maximum lift as a normal intake valve profile (Otto-cycle) unlike a traditional LIVC profile (Atkinson cycle) which needs higher maximum lift.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Hybrid Powertrain for Small and Medium Boats

2018-04-03
2018-01-0373
Hybridization is a mainstream technology for automobiles, and its application is rapidly expanding in other fields. Marine propulsion is one such field that could benefit from electrification of the powertrain. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. The main challenge to accomplish hybridization is the additional weight of the electric components, in particular the batteries. The goal of this project is to replace a conventional 4-stroke turbocharged Diesel engine with a hybrid powertrain, without any penalty in terms of weight, overall dimensions, fuel efficiency, and pollutant emissions. This can be achieved by developing a new generation of 2-Stroke Diesel engines, and coupling them to a state-of-the art electric system. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: opposed piston and loop scavenged engines.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0358
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has become the preferred technology for spark-ignition engines resulting in greater specific power output and lower fuel consumption, and consequently reduction in CO2 emission. However, GDI engines face a substantial challenge in meeting new and future emission limits, especially the stringent particle number (PN) emissions recently introduced in Europe and China. Studies have shown that the fuel used by a vehicle has a significant impact on engine out emissions. In this study, nine fuels with varying chemical composition and physical properties were tested on a modern turbo-charged side-mounted GDI engine with design changes to reduce particulate emissions. The fuels tested included four fuels meeting US certification requirements; two fuels meeting European certification requirements; and one fuel meeting China 6 certification requirements being proposed at the time of this work.
Technical Paper

Development of General Motors’ eAssist Gen3 Propulsion System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0422
General Motors’ 3rd generation eAssist propulsion systems build upon the experience gained from the 2nd generation 115v system and the 1st generation 36v system. Extensive architectural studies were conducted to optimize the new eAssist system to maintain the performance and fuel economy gains of the 2nd generation 115v system while preserving passenger and cargo space, and reducing cost. Three diverse vehicle applications have been brought to production. They include two similar pickup trucks with 5.3 liter V8 engines and 8 speed transmissions, a 4-door passenger car with 2.5 liter 4 cylinder normally aspirated gasoline engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission, and a crossover SUV with a 2.0-liter turbocharged engine and 9 speed transmission. The key electrification components are a new water cooled induction motor/generator (MG), new water cooled power electronics module, and two major variants of 86v lithium ion battery packs.
Technical Paper

General Motors Hydra-Matic 9T50 Automatic Transaxle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0391
General Motors Global Propulsion Systems’ first nine-speed automatic transmission makes its debut in the 2017 Chevrolet Malibu, advancing a legacy of multispeed transmissions designed to optimize efficiency, performance and refinement. The Hydra-Matic 9T50 nine-speed is paired with a Ecotech 2.0L Turbo engine in the Malibu, contributing to an EPA estimated 33 mpg highway, a three-percent increase over the 2016 Malibu with an eight-speed automatic paired to the same engine. The 9T50 has a wider 7.6:1 overall ratio, which is the ratio between the first gear ratio and the top gear ratio, - compared to the six-speed’s 6.0:1 ratio. The 9T50 is fitted with a “deep” 4.69 first gear ratio for excellent off-the-line acceleration and a “tall” 0.62 top gear ratio for low-rpm highway cruising. That balance optimizes acceleration and fuel economy while reducing engine noise during cruising.
Journal Article

A Study of Piston Geometry Effects on Late-Stage Combustion in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine Using Combustion Image Velocimetry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0230
In light-duty direct-injection (DI) diesel engines, combustion chamber geometry influences the complex interactions between swirl and squish flows, spray-wall interactions, as well as late-cycle mixing. Because of these interactions, piston bowl geometry significantly affects fuel efficiency and emissions behavior. However, due to lack of reliable in-cylinder measurements, the mechanisms responsible for piston-induced changes in engine behavior are not well understood. Non-intrusive, in situ optical measurement techniques are necessary to provide a deeper understanding of the piston geometry effect on in-cylinder processes and to assist in the development of predictive engine simulation models. This study compares two substantially different piston bowls with geometries representative of existing technology: a conventional re-entrant bowl and a stepped-lip bowl. Both pistons are tested in a single-cylinder optical diesel engine under identical boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

2017-10-08
2017-01-2401
The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
Journal Article

The Effect of Outer Ring Distortion on Wheel Bearing Friction Torque

2017-09-17
2017-01-2521
Wheel bearing friction torque (“drag”) directly contributes to vehicle fuel economy and CO2 emissions. At the same time, one of the most important factors for long-term durability of wheel bearings is effective seal performance. Since these two factors are often in conflict, it is important to balance the desire for low friction with the need for optimal sealing. One factor that affects wheel bearing sealing performance is the distortion of the outer ring that occurs when the bearing is mounted to the steering knuckle with fasteners. Minimizing this distortion is not just important for sealing, however. This paper explores the relationship between the outer ring distortion and the resulting friction torque. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used in order to study the effects of the fastening bolt torque, constant velocity joint (CVJ) fastening torque, and outer ring distortion on component-level drag.
Journal Article

Brake System Performance at Higher Mileage

2017-09-17
2017-01-2502
The purchase of a new automobile is unquestionably a significant investment for most customers, and with this recognition, comes a correspondingly significant expectation for quality and reliability. Amongst automotive systems -when it comes to considerations of reliability - the brakes (perhaps along with the tires) occupy a rarified position of being located in a harsh environment, subjected to continuous wear throughout their use, and are critical to the safe performance of the vehicle. Maintenance of the brake system is therefore a fact of life for most drivers - something that almost everyone must do, yet given the potentially considerable expense, it is something that of great benefit to minimize.
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