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Technical Paper

Methodology for Virtual Analysis of the Dynamic Behavior of Parking Brake Cable Attached to Leaf Spring Suspension

2017-11-07
2017-36-0128
Through computational dynamic simulations is possible to achieve high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thus reducing the time and component cost can generate significant levels of competitiveness and quality. This work suggests the validation of a methodology for simulation, able to predict and quantify the best design of the parking brake cable that although it is flexible, has in its structure composite elements of different mechanical properties. Known difficulty of mathematically predict nonlinear relationships deformation under forces and moments effect was first established, studies based on experimental measurements serve as input parameters for simulating the dynamic behavior of the flexible cable. With the aid of motion making use of NX9 CAD software, it was prepared the dynamic movement that the leaf spring suspension system does.
Technical Paper

Vibration Absorber Application, Case Study: Mid-Size Truck Steering Wheel Vibration

2017-11-07
2017-36-0125
In this paper an alternative engineering solution to control vehicle steering wheel vibration is presented. The strategy is focused on the implementation of an effective tuned vibration absorber which also complies with time frame and costs requisites. The vibration levels in this case study are enhanced due resonances in the chassis frame and steering column. The tuned mass damper is basically a suspended mass attached on a vulcanized rubber body, aiming for the customer benefits; this solution can be classified as low cost as well low complexity for implementation. In this case study, a mid-size truck was used as a physical hardware and the data were collected through accelerometers on the steering wheel and other critical components. As a control factor, different tunings on different parts were applied to optimize the auxiliary system performance and robustness.
Technical Paper

Brake Flexible Dynamic Analysis Attached to McPherson Suspension, Optimizing the Input Parameters in IPS Cable Simulation

2016-10-25
2016-36-0157
The high level of reliability of virtual analysis for suspension system development should not be thinking only for comfort and performance purpose, considering the `growing number of failures due to the touch between components in dynamic condition. The study establishes a simple and optimized methodology, able to predict more accurately the flexible brake hose path subject to the steering motion and associates with the independent suspension course, aiming the best route in order to achieve a low cost and robust design. In turn, the flexible brake hose non-linear model invalidates the multibody study to get the best route. However, with the aid of motion making use of NX9 [1] CAD [2] software was prepared dynamic movement that subjects front independent suspension system that establishes a Cartesian routine that maps 977 points, much higher than 9 points from previous studies, comprising a more accurate path performed by the hose.
Technical Paper

Garage Shift Calibration for Automatic Transmission in Front Wheel Drive Powertrains

2015-09-22
2015-36-0331
In order to illustrate the constant development of the automatic transmission controls area, this paper describes how the garage shift calibration works in vehicles with transverse front wheel drive powertrains. A garage shift (GS) is the turbine speed transient commanded by the shift lever movement from Park to Drive or Reverse, from Neutral to Drive or Reverse, from Drive to Reverse, from Reverse to Drive, or from Drive or Reverse to Neutral [1]. A usual metric to verify the garage shift comfort is the data acquisition of the fore-aft acceleration on the seat track, but also the shift time should be considered, as well as the clutch energy and the repeatability of the shift feeling for different temperatures and engine idle speed levels. This paper demonstrates the transmission calibration strategies to determine a sensitive and a non-sensitive garage shift and its interactions with the engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Development Differences Between Theoretical And Experimental Process for Automotive Exhaust System

2015-09-22
2015-36-0277
Acoustics, in a broad sense, is an essential product attribute in the automotive industry, therefore, it is relevant to study and compare theoretical and numerical predictions to experimental acoustic measurements, key elements of many acoustic development processes. The numerical methods used in the industry for acoustic predictions are widely used for exhaust system optimization. However, the numerical and theoretical predictions very often differ from experimental results, due to modeling simplifications, temperature variations (which have high influence on speed of sound), manufacturing variations in prototype parts among others. This article aims to demonstrate the relevant steps for acoustics development applied in automotive exhaust systems and present a comparative study between experimental tests and computer simulations results for each process. The exhaust system chosen for this development was intended for a popular car 4-cylinder 1.0-liter engine.
Technical Paper

Study of Geometric Parameters for Validation and Reduction Effort in Steering System of a Vehicle FSAE

2015-09-22
2015-36-0147
This paper explores the method of modeling and validation the computational tools able to accurately replicate the dynamic behavior of a Formula SAE vehicle. Based on limitations in conducting physical tests, it is possible to mathematically predict the forces and momentum generated on the steering column of the vehicle, minimizing effort and improving driver comfort even before the component physically manufactured. The results in permanent state due technical instrumentations were used in the physical vehicles and compared with other proposals (skid Pad test). As the software simulating the same path, it was possible to adopt values of speed and wheel steering, allowing compare the dynamics of the vehicle, through the signals from other sensors installed in the data acquisition system, validating the behavior of the models presented in permanent state. Other aspects were studied to understand vehicle behavior concerning lateral stability and steering behavior.
Technical Paper

Methodology for the Analysis of Virtual Deformation of Flexible Elements Associated with the Engine Displacement

2015-09-22
2015-36-0171
Through computational dynamic simulations is possible to achieve high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thereby enabling the reduction of cost and time of a product development with considerable gain in quality. This work suggests the validation of a methodology for simulation where is possible to improve the confidence level for design flexible components, such Heater and Cooling hoses that are under dynamic engine action, in relation to the physical model. Known the difficulty in predicting non-linear mathematical relationship deformation under effect of forces and moments, was established a study based on experimental measurements where were used as input parameters to simulate the dynamic behavior of flexible components, in this case, coolant hoses.
Technical Paper

Loads Reduction on PWT Mounts System Applying “Frequency Sweep Virtual Analysis” to Identify Resonance Mode

2015-09-22
2015-36-0451
This Paper presents the “Frequency Sweep Virtual Analysis” as a tool to help to define the best powertrain mount concept in order to identify the resonance mode frequency on Powertrain System. Applying this method, we can identify proposals to reduce loads in the Powertrain system due the resonance mode and consequently minimize possibility of exceeding material strength. The “Frequency Sweep Virtual Analysis” drives the powertrain mounts design to avoid running many Road Load Data Acquisitions (RLDA) in a trial-and-error process (Cost reduction and timing savings).
Technical Paper

Using Spherical Beamforming to Evaluate Wind Noise Paths

2014-11-04
2014-36-0791
Microphone array based techniques have a growing range of applications in the vehicle development process. This paper evaluates the use of Spherical Beamforming (SB) to investigate the transmission of wind-generated noise into the passenger cabin, as one of the alternative ways to perform in-vehicle troubleshooting and design optimization. On track measurements at dominant wind noise conditions are taken with the spherical microphone array positioned at the front passenger head location. Experimental diligence and careful processing necessary to enable concise conclusions are briefly described. The application of Spherical Harmonics Angularly Resolved Pressure (SHARP) and the Filter-And-Sum (FAS) algorithms is compared. Data analysis variables, run-to-run repeatability and system capability to identify design modifications are studied.
Technical Paper

Dual Function Gasket Design

2014-09-30
2014-36-0116
Vehicular manual transmissions systems often use a vent or breather to allow pressure control inside the main structure. This pressure variation comes along with differences caused by working temperature range. However along with air flow these vents may occasionally allow oil passage noticed by vehicle owner as a transmission leakage event. The more sophisticated the more expensive is the venting device which may contain membranes, labyrinths, baffles and other solutions to avoid leakage. The purpose of this paper is to present a simplified solution to avoid transmission fluid leakage by combining a regular sealing device (fiber concept gasket) and a baffle to avoid oil splash to reach the venting device. The proposed concept took into consideration a quick implementation aspect, low financial impact and less complexity to the overall current system modifying an existing component by adding secondary function instead of creating additional components.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight Fixed Steering Column Applying DFSS Methodology

2014-09-30
2014-36-0103
Over recent years, demands for fuel-efficient vehicles have increased with the rise of the fuel price and public concerns on environment. Recently, application of lightweight materials is increasing in the automobile industry in order to improve mass reduction and consequently fuel efficiency. On this particular study, with a goal of developing a Lightweight Fixed Steering Column, it was identified an opportunity to replace fixed steering column metallic upper and lower brackets by polymeric material. In order to fulfill NVH, Crash, Durability and Performance requirements, a DFSS methodology has been applied. As a result, It was achieved ∼51% of mass reduction, ∼10% of performance improvement with ∼14% of cost increase.
Technical Paper

Front of Dash Pass-Through Design Optimization

2014-09-30
2014-36-0219
Product Design is a process of creating new product by an organization or business entity for its customer. Being part of a stage in a product life cycle, it is very important that the highest level of effort is being put in the stage. The Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology consists of a collection of tools, needs-gathering, engineering, statistical methods, and best practices that find use in product development. DFSS has the objective of determining the needs of customers and the business, and driving those needs into the product solution so created. In this paper the DFSS methodology is employed to develop the optimal solution to enhance sound transmission loss in a vehicle front of dash pass-through. An integrated approach using acoustic holography and beamforming Noise Source Identification (NSI) techniques is presented as a manner to improve sound insulation during vehicle development.
Technical Paper

Wheels and Tires Assembling Case Study

2014-09-30
2014-36-0253
This paper makes an analysis of problems encountered in assembling components from automotive vehicles. It shows wheel and tires assembling cases of an automaker that applies lean manufacturing concepts in the production process. This study not only makes the analysis from the best way to apply the methodology to seek for the root cause, but also uses methodology to identify containment measures, defining robust solutions capable of preventing the incidence of similar problems. This methodology can be applied to solving problems of any production process, even outside of the automotive industry
Technical Paper

The Use of Piezoelectric Resonators to Enhance Sound Insulation in a Vehicle Panel

2012-11-25
2012-36-0613
The control of noise and vibrations using conventional damping materials is typically associated to mass penalties in a vehicle. A lightweight alternative employs piezoceramic materials connected in series to a resistor and an inductor (R-L circuit) to perform as mechanical vibration absorber, called piezoelectric resonator. In this paper, piezoelectric resonators are designed to attenuate vibration in a vehicle panel. The choice of design parameters, such as correct placement for the piezoelectric patches and the optimal electrical circuit values, is assisted by Finite Element simulation (FE) and theoretical analysis. Measurements of Sound Transmission Loss (STL) and modal analyses are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique when compared to a conventional damping material.
Technical Paper

Springback: How to Improve its Early Prediction Instead of Late Stamping Dies Rework

2012-10-02
2012-36-0373
The globalization, rivalry and the technologies have changed the auto industry in a battlefield, where companies are fighting for quality, reliability, the reduction of development cycle and also cost. The manufacturing process of car body is the major responsible for time consumption, labor and investment. One of the bottleneck solutions is to use computational simulations during design phase in order to minimize the reworks. The car body is composed by several stamped parts, and its design requires a series of parallel activities, and one of the fundamental information is the accurate magnitude of spring back distortions, but due to the complexity of the phenomenon, the results are not so accurate as desired. The explored literatures are recommending numeric methods to simulate material's behavior and also the spring back phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Treatment of End of Life Vehicles in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities

2012-10-02
2012-36-0217
Style changes and technological advances have led to reduced service life of current products as automobiles. These are among the goods that are constantly re-designed to meet our growing needs for improved products. However, these demands for new products and more modern has meant a great cost to our natural resources, such as excessive use of raw materials, water and energy during production, use and end of life cycle of these assets. The increasing scarcity of land available for the proper disposal of waste in landfills, in addition to the high cost of implementing these areas and the increasing distances to urban centers imply the need to reduce solid waste generation, including here the automotive. The growth of the automotive market has created a serious problem due to the disposal of urban waste volumes generated, the great diversity of materials involved and their toxicity.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Aluminum Wheels with Focus on Specification Materials and Manufacturing

2011-10-04
2011-36-0267
The growing need to avoid failures in vehicle components have become the methods of quality control of manufacturing processes more efficient and accurate, especially in safety components like automotive wheels. The aim of this work is examines the efficiency of aluminum-silicon specifications related to wheel quality for avoiding the poor results obtained in impact and fatigue tests as result of improper settings in the chemical composition and manufacture process. It is evaluated mainly the content of magnesium in aluminum alloys and certified the correct degree of silicon modification in the microstructure on the performance of these wheels. The test results indicate that even with the chemical composition parameters specified by the standard, the technical validation of the product may not be adequate.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electrical Power Steering for Emergent Markets

2010-10-06
2010-36-0243
Development of an Electrical Power Steering (EPS) system for Emergent Markets, with emphasis on improved fuel economy and cost advantages to the customer. The EPS for Emergent Markets provides high steering wheel assistance on parking maneuvers and appropriate assistance on driving conditions similar to conventional EPS systems. The assistance levels decreases while vehicle speed increases providing better steering feel at high speed conditions (highway tracks). It also provides good tuning capability balanced with piece cost. In addition, this EPS enables an aftermarket bolt-on system for non-assisted steering vehicles (i.e., manual steering vehicles).
Technical Paper

Control of Airborne Road Noise Using Sealers

2010-10-06
2010-36-0458
Noise generated during tire/road interaction has significant impact on the acoustic comfort of a vehicle. One of the most common approaches to attenuate road noise levels consists on the addition of mass treatments to the vehicle panels. However, the acoustic performance of sealing elements is also relevant and has an important contribution to the noise transmission into the vehicle interior. In this paper the correct balance between the mass added to treat vehicle panels and sealing content is investigated. The procedure to quantify the critical road noise transmission paths consists of recording interior noise levels as applied treatment is removed from potential weak areas, such as wheelhouses, floor, doors and body pillars. It is observed that the noise propagation through body pillars has a direct influence on road noise levels.
Technical Paper

Influence of residual stresses in aluminum wheel design

2008-10-07
2008-36-0139
The current study shows important results obtained by a new technique of residual stress virtual evaluation in automotive components for improving the development and quality of new products, aiming the structural performance, mass and cost reductions. The approaching those virtual results were adjusted by metallurgic data obtained in metallography, mechanical and chemical analysis. As part of this proposal, an automotive aluminum wheel belong to current production was evaluated in accordance with data acquired in the wheel manufacturing process. It was taking in account the real information of casting process parameters and the metallurgic information obtained in laboratorial tests. In this work, the results show that product residual stresses shall be considerate and evaluated during design phases as improving proposal, new technical concerns and quality improving.
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