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Technical Paper

Methodology for Virtual Analysis of the Dynamic Behavior of Parking Brake Cable Attached to Leaf Spring Suspension

Through computational dynamic simulations is possible to achieve high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thus reducing the time and component cost can generate significant levels of competitiveness and quality. This work suggests the validation of a methodology for simulation, able to predict and quantify the best design of the parking brake cable that although it is flexible, has in its structure composite elements of different mechanical properties. Known difficulty of mathematically predict nonlinear relationships deformation under forces and moments effect was first established, studies based on experimental measurements serve as input parameters for simulating the dynamic behavior of the flexible cable. With the aid of motion making use of NX9 CAD software, it was prepared the dynamic movement that the leaf spring suspension system does.
Technical Paper

Vibration Absorber Application, Case Study: Mid-Size Truck Steering Wheel Vibration

In this paper an alternative engineering solution to control vehicle steering wheel vibration is presented. The strategy is focused on the implementation of an effective tuned vibration absorber which also complies with time frame and costs requisites. The vibration levels in this case study are enhanced due resonances in the chassis frame and steering column. The tuned mass damper is basically a suspended mass attached on a vulcanized rubber body, aiming for the customer benefits; this solution can be classified as low cost as well low complexity for implementation. In this case study, a mid-size truck was used as a physical hardware and the data were collected through accelerometers on the steering wheel and other critical components. As a control factor, different tunings on different parts were applied to optimize the auxiliary system performance and robustness.
Technical Paper

Brake Flexible Dynamic Analysis Attached to McPherson Suspension, Optimizing the Input Parameters in IPS Cable Simulation

The high level of reliability of virtual analysis for suspension system development should not be thinking only for comfort and performance purpose, considering the `growing number of failures due to the touch between components in dynamic condition. The study establishes a simple and optimized methodology, able to predict more accurately the flexible brake hose path subject to the steering motion and associates with the independent suspension course, aiming the best route in order to achieve a low cost and robust design. In turn, the flexible brake hose non-linear model invalidates the multibody study to get the best route. However, with the aid of motion making use of NX9 [1] CAD [2] software was prepared dynamic movement that subjects front independent suspension system that establishes a Cartesian routine that maps 977 points, much higher than 9 points from previous studies, comprising a more accurate path performed by the hose.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Development Differences Between Theoretical And Experimental Process for Automotive Exhaust System

Acoustics, in a broad sense, is an essential product attribute in the automotive industry, therefore, it is relevant to study and compare theoretical and numerical predictions to experimental acoustic measurements, key elements of many acoustic development processes. The numerical methods used in the industry for acoustic predictions are widely used for exhaust system optimization. However, the numerical and theoretical predictions very often differ from experimental results, due to modeling simplifications, temperature variations (which have high influence on speed of sound), manufacturing variations in prototype parts among others. This article aims to demonstrate the relevant steps for acoustics development applied in automotive exhaust systems and present a comparative study between experimental tests and computer simulations results for each process. The exhaust system chosen for this development was intended for a popular car 4-cylinder 1.0-liter engine.
Technical Paper

Study of Geometric Parameters for Validation and Reduction Effort in Steering System of a Vehicle FSAE

This paper explores the method of modeling and validation the computational tools able to accurately replicate the dynamic behavior of a Formula SAE vehicle. Based on limitations in conducting physical tests, it is possible to mathematically predict the forces and momentum generated on the steering column of the vehicle, minimizing effort and improving driver comfort even before the component physically manufactured. The results in permanent state due technical instrumentations were used in the physical vehicles and compared with other proposals (skid Pad test). As the software simulating the same path, it was possible to adopt values of speed and wheel steering, allowing compare the dynamics of the vehicle, through the signals from other sensors installed in the data acquisition system, validating the behavior of the models presented in permanent state. Other aspects were studied to understand vehicle behavior concerning lateral stability and steering behavior.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight Fixed Steering Column Applying DFSS Methodology

Over recent years, demands for fuel-efficient vehicles have increased with the rise of the fuel price and public concerns on environment. Recently, application of lightweight materials is increasing in the automobile industry in order to improve mass reduction and consequently fuel efficiency. On this particular study, with a goal of developing a Lightweight Fixed Steering Column, it was identified an opportunity to replace fixed steering column metallic upper and lower brackets by polymeric material. In order to fulfill NVH, Crash, Durability and Performance requirements, a DFSS methodology has been applied. As a result, It was achieved ∼51% of mass reduction, ∼10% of performance improvement with ∼14% of cost increase.
Technical Paper

Wheels and Tires Assembling Case Study

This paper makes an analysis of problems encountered in assembling components from automotive vehicles. It shows wheel and tires assembling cases of an automaker that applies lean manufacturing concepts in the production process. This study not only makes the analysis from the best way to apply the methodology to seek for the root cause, but also uses methodology to identify containment measures, defining robust solutions capable of preventing the incidence of similar problems. This methodology can be applied to solving problems of any production process, even outside of the automotive industry
Technical Paper

Springback: How to Improve its Early Prediction Instead of Late Stamping Dies Rework

The globalization, rivalry and the technologies have changed the auto industry in a battlefield, where companies are fighting for quality, reliability, the reduction of development cycle and also cost. The manufacturing process of car body is the major responsible for time consumption, labor and investment. One of the bottleneck solutions is to use computational simulations during design phase in order to minimize the reworks. The car body is composed by several stamped parts, and its design requires a series of parallel activities, and one of the fundamental information is the accurate magnitude of spring back distortions, but due to the complexity of the phenomenon, the results are not so accurate as desired. The explored literatures are recommending numeric methods to simulate material's behavior and also the spring back phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Treatment of End of Life Vehicles in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities

Style changes and technological advances have led to reduced service life of current products as automobiles. These are among the goods that are constantly re-designed to meet our growing needs for improved products. However, these demands for new products and more modern has meant a great cost to our natural resources, such as excessive use of raw materials, water and energy during production, use and end of life cycle of these assets. The increasing scarcity of land available for the proper disposal of waste in landfills, in addition to the high cost of implementing these areas and the increasing distances to urban centers imply the need to reduce solid waste generation, including here the automotive. The growth of the automotive market has created a serious problem due to the disposal of urban waste volumes generated, the great diversity of materials involved and their toxicity.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Aluminum Wheels with Focus on Specification Materials and Manufacturing

The growing need to avoid failures in vehicle components have become the methods of quality control of manufacturing processes more efficient and accurate, especially in safety components like automotive wheels. The aim of this work is examines the efficiency of aluminum-silicon specifications related to wheel quality for avoiding the poor results obtained in impact and fatigue tests as result of improper settings in the chemical composition and manufacture process. It is evaluated mainly the content of magnesium in aluminum alloys and certified the correct degree of silicon modification in the microstructure on the performance of these wheels. The test results indicate that even with the chemical composition parameters specified by the standard, the technical validation of the product may not be adequate.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electrical Power Steering for Emergent Markets

Development of an Electrical Power Steering (EPS) system for Emergent Markets, with emphasis on improved fuel economy and cost advantages to the customer. The EPS for Emergent Markets provides high steering wheel assistance on parking maneuvers and appropriate assistance on driving conditions similar to conventional EPS systems. The assistance levels decreases while vehicle speed increases providing better steering feel at high speed conditions (highway tracks). It also provides good tuning capability balanced with piece cost. In addition, this EPS enables an aftermarket bolt-on system for non-assisted steering vehicles (i.e., manual steering vehicles).
Technical Paper

Influence of residual stresses in aluminum wheel design

The current study shows important results obtained by a new technique of residual stress virtual evaluation in automotive components for improving the development and quality of new products, aiming the structural performance, mass and cost reductions. The approaching those virtual results were adjusted by metallurgic data obtained in metallography, mechanical and chemical analysis. As part of this proposal, an automotive aluminum wheel belong to current production was evaluated in accordance with data acquired in the wheel manufacturing process. It was taking in account the real information of casting process parameters and the metallurgic information obtained in laboratorial tests. In this work, the results show that product residual stresses shall be considerate and evaluated during design phases as improving proposal, new technical concerns and quality improving.
Technical Paper


The present work gives an overview of the current situation of failures that may occur in automotive components, showing their distribution in the vehicle and the causes that make them occur, trying to emphasize the different materials which are used in the manufacturing of these components. This work is a technical approach strictly supported by an engineering concept which aims to discuss the different factors which contribute to cause premature failures of automotive components, prior to their utilization in the field or when they are exposed to the most variable conditions of use. One of the most important objectives of this study is to call the attention of design engineers, research engineers and manufacturing people to the importance of the components integrity which shall be taken into primary consideration in the design phase as well as in the specification of the material and process of manufacturing.