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Technical Paper

Methodology for Virtual Analysis of the Dynamic Behavior of Parking Brake Cable Attached to Leaf Spring Suspension

2017-11-07
2017-36-0128
Through computational dynamic simulations is possible to achieve high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thus reducing the time and component cost can generate significant levels of competitiveness and quality. This work suggests the validation of a methodology for simulation, able to predict and quantify the best design of the parking brake cable that although it is flexible, has in its structure composite elements of different mechanical properties. Known difficulty of mathematically predict nonlinear relationships deformation under forces and moments effect was first established, studies based on experimental measurements serve as input parameters for simulating the dynamic behavior of the flexible cable. With the aid of motion making use of NX9 CAD software, it was prepared the dynamic movement that the leaf spring suspension system does.
Technical Paper

Vibration Absorber Application, Case Study: Mid-Size Truck Steering Wheel Vibration

2017-11-07
2017-36-0125
In this paper an alternative engineering solution to control vehicle steering wheel vibration is presented. The strategy is focused on the implementation of an effective tuned vibration absorber which also complies with time frame and costs requisites. The vibration levels in this case study are enhanced due resonances in the chassis frame and steering column. The tuned mass damper is basically a suspended mass attached on a vulcanized rubber body, aiming for the customer benefits; this solution can be classified as low cost as well low complexity for implementation. In this case study, a mid-size truck was used as a physical hardware and the data were collected through accelerometers on the steering wheel and other critical components. As a control factor, different tunings on different parts were applied to optimize the auxiliary system performance and robustness.
Technical Paper

Brake Flexible Dynamic Analysis Attached to McPherson Suspension, Optimizing the Input Parameters in IPS Cable Simulation

2016-10-25
2016-36-0157
The high level of reliability of virtual analysis for suspension system development should not be thinking only for comfort and performance purpose, considering the `growing number of failures due to the touch between components in dynamic condition. The study establishes a simple and optimized methodology, able to predict more accurately the flexible brake hose path subject to the steering motion and associates with the independent suspension course, aiming the best route in order to achieve a low cost and robust design. In turn, the flexible brake hose non-linear model invalidates the multibody study to get the best route. However, with the aid of motion making use of NX9 [1] CAD [2] software was prepared dynamic movement that subjects front independent suspension system that establishes a Cartesian routine that maps 977 points, much higher than 9 points from previous studies, comprising a more accurate path performed by the hose.
Technical Paper

Study of Geometric Parameters for Validation and Reduction Effort in Steering System of a Vehicle FSAE

2015-09-22
2015-36-0147
This paper explores the method of modeling and validation the computational tools able to accurately replicate the dynamic behavior of a Formula SAE vehicle. Based on limitations in conducting physical tests, it is possible to mathematically predict the forces and momentum generated on the steering column of the vehicle, minimizing effort and improving driver comfort even before the component physically manufactured. The results in permanent state due technical instrumentations were used in the physical vehicles and compared with other proposals (skid Pad test). As the software simulating the same path, it was possible to adopt values of speed and wheel steering, allowing compare the dynamics of the vehicle, through the signals from other sensors installed in the data acquisition system, validating the behavior of the models presented in permanent state. Other aspects were studied to understand vehicle behavior concerning lateral stability and steering behavior.
Technical Paper

Methodology for the Analysis of Virtual Deformation of Flexible Elements Associated with the Engine Displacement

2015-09-22
2015-36-0171
Through computational dynamic simulations is possible to achieve high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thereby enabling the reduction of cost and time of a product development with considerable gain in quality. This work suggests the validation of a methodology for simulation where is possible to improve the confidence level for design flexible components, such Heater and Cooling hoses that are under dynamic engine action, in relation to the physical model. Known the difficulty in predicting non-linear mathematical relationship deformation under effect of forces and moments, was established a study based on experimental measurements where were used as input parameters to simulate the dynamic behavior of flexible components, in this case, coolant hoses.
Technical Paper

Airflow Optimization w/ Distinct Intake Valves Designs by Numerical and Experimental Study in a 4-Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

2015-09-22
2015-36-0104
This paper deals with the study of different design configurations for intake valves and valve seats on a current production cylinder head and their effect on airflow behavior and optimization, under steady flow condition. The analysis was performed trough a Design for Six-Sigma methodology (DFSS). The cases were simulated through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software and a prototype considering the best configuration was built and tested at flow bench. Correlation between simulation and experimental data was performed in order to validate the results for current, as well as, for future studies. The goal is to determine how geometric design variations on intake valve profiles and valve seats affect airflow on the particular cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Accelerating Automotive EMC Tests - A Comparison between Numerical Simulations and Experimental Data

2015-09-22
2015-36-0113
The effects of specific parts inside the vehicle body in a radiated immunity numerical simulation is addressed. The benefits of numerical simulations for electromagnetic compatibility analysis is well known and reported in the literature, nevertheless, the accuracy of the results depends on the mathematical models that is being considered. Numerous simulations were performed, detailing how specific parts of a vehicle can affect the electric field inside a vehicle. The commercial package ANSYS HFSS™ was used due to the extremely fast and accurate simulations since it uses the finite element method technique, which includes hybridizations with the method of moments. This allows full simulations to be performed in a few minutes with controlled convergence, allowing a more extensive investigation. Simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from experiments performed at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais showing a good agreement.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Development Differences Between Theoretical And Experimental Process for Automotive Exhaust System

2015-09-22
2015-36-0277
Acoustics, in a broad sense, is an essential product attribute in the automotive industry, therefore, it is relevant to study and compare theoretical and numerical predictions to experimental acoustic measurements, key elements of many acoustic development processes. The numerical methods used in the industry for acoustic predictions are widely used for exhaust system optimization. However, the numerical and theoretical predictions very often differ from experimental results, due to modeling simplifications, temperature variations (which have high influence on speed of sound), manufacturing variations in prototype parts among others. This article aims to demonstrate the relevant steps for acoustics development applied in automotive exhaust systems and present a comparative study between experimental tests and computer simulations results for each process. The exhaust system chosen for this development was intended for a popular car 4-cylinder 1.0-liter engine.
Technical Paper

Using Spherical Beamforming to Evaluate Wind Noise Paths

2014-11-04
2014-36-0791
Microphone array based techniques have a growing range of applications in the vehicle development process. This paper evaluates the use of Spherical Beamforming (SB) to investigate the transmission of wind-generated noise into the passenger cabin, as one of the alternative ways to perform in-vehicle troubleshooting and design optimization. On track measurements at dominant wind noise conditions are taken with the spherical microphone array positioned at the front passenger head location. Experimental diligence and careful processing necessary to enable concise conclusions are briefly described. The application of Spherical Harmonics Angularly Resolved Pressure (SHARP) and the Filter-And-Sum (FAS) algorithms is compared. Data analysis variables, run-to-run repeatability and system capability to identify design modifications are studied.
Technical Paper

Wheels and Tires Assembling Case Study

2014-09-30
2014-36-0253
This paper makes an analysis of problems encountered in assembling components from automotive vehicles. It shows wheel and tires assembling cases of an automaker that applies lean manufacturing concepts in the production process. This study not only makes the analysis from the best way to apply the methodology to seek for the root cause, but also uses methodology to identify containment measures, defining robust solutions capable of preventing the incidence of similar problems. This methodology can be applied to solving problems of any production process, even outside of the automotive industry
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight Fixed Steering Column Applying DFSS Methodology

2014-09-30
2014-36-0103
Over recent years, demands for fuel-efficient vehicles have increased with the rise of the fuel price and public concerns on environment. Recently, application of lightweight materials is increasing in the automobile industry in order to improve mass reduction and consequently fuel efficiency. On this particular study, with a goal of developing a Lightweight Fixed Steering Column, it was identified an opportunity to replace fixed steering column metallic upper and lower brackets by polymeric material. In order to fulfill NVH, Crash, Durability and Performance requirements, a DFSS methodology has been applied. As a result, It was achieved ∼51% of mass reduction, ∼10% of performance improvement with ∼14% of cost increase.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Restraint System Optimization for Frontal Impact

2013-10-07
2013-36-0473
The Brazilian Automotive regulations that are aimed towards the safety of drivers, passengers and pedestrians have gone through recent changes to prevent and/or minimize injury and trauma from different types of accidents. Until now, National Traffic Council (CONTRAN) Resolution n° 14/98 required vehicles to only have safety belts for an occupant restraint system, and frontal airbags were not required. Since the recent CONTRAN n° 311/09 Resolution requires mandatory frontal airbags, the occupant restraint system must be tuned due to the interaction with different components that may make up the system, like safety belts with pretensioners and seatbelt load limiting devices. The present study was developed to optimize the restraint system of a current vehicle in production, while focusing on minimizing the vehicle complexity. The optimization tool helped to develop a robust restraint system for the frontal passenger during a frontal impact [1].
Technical Paper

Automotive Skin Panels Quality Improvement by Means of Finite Element Method

2013-10-07
2013-36-0194
In the middle of the global competition, inside the automotive sector, the perceived quality of costumers, related to the beauty and harmony of the outer skin surfaces of motor vehicles, has become one of the main determinant factors in the purchase process decision. In general, the initial perceived quality of a car is determined by an appealing design of its body, the color and gloss of its paint, and also the manufacturing and assembly accuracy of the skin panels. The appealing design makes the skin panel even more complex and hard to produce with current metal forming technologies and the results are often small distortions on the outer surfaces about tens of microns and most of the times paint does not cover such imperfections. Despite the technological advances along the years, surface quality inspection was still being performed by manual and subjective evaluation by experts.
Technical Paper

The Use of Piezoelectric Resonators to Enhance Sound Insulation in a Vehicle Panel

2012-11-25
2012-36-0613
The control of noise and vibrations using conventional damping materials is typically associated to mass penalties in a vehicle. A lightweight alternative employs piezoceramic materials connected in series to a resistor and an inductor (R-L circuit) to perform as mechanical vibration absorber, called piezoelectric resonator. In this paper, piezoelectric resonators are designed to attenuate vibration in a vehicle panel. The choice of design parameters, such as correct placement for the piezoelectric patches and the optimal electrical circuit values, is assisted by Finite Element simulation (FE) and theoretical analysis. Measurements of Sound Transmission Loss (STL) and modal analyses are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique when compared to a conventional damping material.
Technical Paper

Treatment of End of Life Vehicles in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities

2012-10-02
2012-36-0217
Style changes and technological advances have led to reduced service life of current products as automobiles. These are among the goods that are constantly re-designed to meet our growing needs for improved products. However, these demands for new products and more modern has meant a great cost to our natural resources, such as excessive use of raw materials, water and energy during production, use and end of life cycle of these assets. The increasing scarcity of land available for the proper disposal of waste in landfills, in addition to the high cost of implementing these areas and the increasing distances to urban centers imply the need to reduce solid waste generation, including here the automotive. The growth of the automotive market has created a serious problem due to the disposal of urban waste volumes generated, the great diversity of materials involved and their toxicity.
Technical Paper

Springback: How to Improve its Early Prediction Instead of Late Stamping Dies Rework

2012-10-02
2012-36-0373
The globalization, rivalry and the technologies have changed the auto industry in a battlefield, where companies are fighting for quality, reliability, the reduction of development cycle and also cost. The manufacturing process of car body is the major responsible for time consumption, labor and investment. One of the bottleneck solutions is to use computational simulations during design phase in order to minimize the reworks. The car body is composed by several stamped parts, and its design requires a series of parallel activities, and one of the fundamental information is the accurate magnitude of spring back distortions, but due to the complexity of the phenomenon, the results are not so accurate as desired. The explored literatures are recommending numeric methods to simulate material's behavior and also the spring back phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Aluminum Wheels with Focus on Specification Materials and Manufacturing

2011-10-04
2011-36-0267
The growing need to avoid failures in vehicle components have become the methods of quality control of manufacturing processes more efficient and accurate, especially in safety components like automotive wheels. The aim of this work is examines the efficiency of aluminum-silicon specifications related to wheel quality for avoiding the poor results obtained in impact and fatigue tests as result of improper settings in the chemical composition and manufacture process. It is evaluated mainly the content of magnesium in aluminum alloys and certified the correct degree of silicon modification in the microstructure on the performance of these wheels. The test results indicate that even with the chemical composition parameters specified by the standard, the technical validation of the product may not be adequate.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electrical Power Steering for Emergent Markets

2010-10-06
2010-36-0243
Development of an Electrical Power Steering (EPS) system for Emergent Markets, with emphasis on improved fuel economy and cost advantages to the customer. The EPS for Emergent Markets provides high steering wheel assistance on parking maneuvers and appropriate assistance on driving conditions similar to conventional EPS systems. The assistance levels decreases while vehicle speed increases providing better steering feel at high speed conditions (highway tracks). It also provides good tuning capability balanced with piece cost. In addition, this EPS enables an aftermarket bolt-on system for non-assisted steering vehicles (i.e., manual steering vehicles).
Technical Paper

Computational method to assess the SUV drivers' dynamics due to rollover crashes

2010-10-06
2010-36-0223
Even though the rollover is not the most frequent type of accident, it is of the greatest significance with respect to injury and trauma caused to the vehicle occupants. The need to reduce death incidence and serious injuries has increased the importance of computational simulations and prototype testing. This study presents finite element model to simulate rollover events and to predict possible injuries caused in the head, neck, thorax and cervical spine. Numerical models of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) are simulated including anthropomorphic dummy to represent the driver. The injury risks and traumas are verified to the driver considering belted and unbelted dummies. The computational methodology developed proved to be efficient for the evaluation of the vehicle's roof structure in rollover events.
Technical Paper

Probability of Occupant's Injuries due to Rollover Crashes - Computational Methods

2009-10-06
2009-36-0261
Rollover crashes are responsible for more than 20% of total passengers deaths in vehicular accidents. Every year a higher number of consumers have been critically injured in rollovers, which translates into hundreds of millions of dollars of unnecessary health care cost. Efforts to reduce the incidence of death and catastrophic injuries associated with rollover crashes have increased the importance of both, prototype testing and computational simulations. Automotive industry and individual researchers have performed numerous rollover tests using instrumented anthropomorphic test devices (ATD), with the objective of predicting possible head, neck, and cervical spine injuries. Some of these works measured accelerations, forces and moments on head, neck and cervical spines, which can cause several other injuries according to medical traumas databases.
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