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Technical Paper

Tradeoff Study of High Altitude Solar Reflector Concepts

2017-09-19
2017-01-2143
A direct solution to Global Warming would be to reflect a part of sunlight back into Space. A system tradeoff study is being developed with three of the concepts that are being evaluated as long-endurance high-altitude reflectors. The first concept is a high aspect ratio solar powered flying wing towing reflector sheets. This concept is named “Flying Carpet”. Second is a centrifugally stretched high altitude solar reflector (CSHASR). The CSHASR has 4 rotors made of reflector sheets with a hub stretching to 60 percent of the radius, held together by an ultralight quad-rotor structure. Each rotor is powered by a solar-electric motor. A variation on this concept, forced by nighttime descent rate concerns, is powered by tip-mounted solar panels and propellers with some battery storage augmenting rotational inertia as well as energy storage. The third concept is an Aerostatically Balanced Reflector (ABR) sheet, held up by hydrogen balloons.
Technical Paper

The Flying Carpet: Aerodynamic High-Altitude Solar Reflector Design Study

2017-09-19
2017-01-2026
Our concept studies indicate that a set of reflectors floated in the upper atmosphere can efficiently reduce radiant forcing into the atmosphere. The cost of reducing the radiant forcing sufficiently to reverse the current rate of Global Warming, is well within reach of global financial resources. This paper summarizes the overall concept and focuses on one of the reflector concepts, the Flying Carpet. The basic element of this reflector array is a rigidized reflector sheet towed behind and above a solar-powered, distributed electric-propelled flying wing. The vehicle rises above 30,480 m (100,000 ft) in the daytime by solar power. At night, the very low wing loading of the sheets enables the system to stay well above the controlled airspace ceiling of 18,288 m (60,000 ft). The concept study results are summarized before going into technical issues in implementation. Flag instability is studied in initial wind tunnel experiments.
Journal Article

Time-Varying Loads of Co-Axial Rotor Blade Crossings

2017-09-19
2017-01-2024
The blade crossing event of a coaxial counter-rotating rotor is a potential source of noise and impulsive blade loads. Blade crossings occur many times during each rotor revolution. In previous research by the authors, this phenomenon was analyzed by simulating two airfoils passing each other at specified speeds and vertical separation distances, using the compressible Navier-Stokes solver OVERFLOW. The simulations explored mutual aerodynamic interactions associated with thickness, circulation, and compressibility effects. Results revealed the complex nature of the aerodynamic impulses generated by upper/lower airfoil interactions. In this paper, the coaxial rotor system is simulated using two trains of airfoils, vertically offset, and traveling in opposite directions. The simulation represents multiple blade crossings in a rotor revolution by specifying horizontal distances between each airfoil in the train based on the circumferential distance between blade tips.
Technical Paper

Yaw Effects on the Narrowband Spectra Above a Delta Wing in Turbulent Flow

2016-09-20
2016-01-2056
Combat aircraft maneuvering at high angles of attack or in landing approach are likely to encounter conditions where the flow over the swept wings is yawed. This paper examines the effect of yaw on the spectra of turbulence above and aft of the wing, in the region where fins and control surfaces are located. Prior work has shown the occurrence of narrowband velocity fluctuations in this region for most combat aircraft models, including those with twin fins. Fin vibration and damage has been traced to excitation by such narrowband fluctuations. The narrowband fluctuations themselves have been traced to the wing surface. The issue in this paper is the effect of yaw on these fluctuations, as well as on the aerodynamic loads on a wing, without including the perturbations due to the airframe.
Technical Paper

Pressure Field Evolution on Rotor Blades at High Advance Ratio

2016-09-20
2016-01-2010
The design of advanced rotorcraft requires knowledge of the flowfield and loads on the rotor blade at extreme advance ratios (ratios of the forward flight speed to rotor tip speed). In this domain, strong vortices form below the rotor, and their evolution has a sharp influence on the aero-dynamics loads experienced by the rotor, particularly the loads experienced at pitch links. To understand the load distribution, the surface pressure distribution must be captured. This has posed a severe problem in wind tunnel experiments. In our experiments, a 2-bladed teetering rotor with collective and cyclic pitch controls is used in a low speed subsonic wind tunnel in reverse flow. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is used to measure the three component spatial velocity field. Measurement accuracy is now adequate for velocity data, and can be converted to pressure both at and away from the blade surface.
Technical Paper

Coaxial Rotor Flow Phenomena in Forward Flight

2016-09-20
2016-01-2009
Coaxial rotors are finding use in advanced rotorcraft concepts. Combined with lift offset rotor technology, they offer a solution to the problems of dynamic stall and reverse flow that often limit single rotor forward flight speeds. In addition, coaxial rotorcraft systems do not need a tail rotor, a major boon during operation in confined areas. However, the operation of two counter-rotating rotors in close proximity generates many possible aerodynamic interactions between rotor blades, blades and vortices, and between vortices. With two rotors, the parameter design space is very large, and requires efficient computations as well as basic experiments to explore aerodynamics of a coaxial rotor and the effects on performance, loads, and acoustics.
Technical Paper

Slung Load Divergence Speed Predictions for Vehicle Shapes

2015-09-15
2015-01-2570
Loads slung under aircraft can go into divergent oscillations coupling multiple degrees of freedom. Predicting the highest safe flight speed for a vehicle-load combination is a critical challenge, both for military missions over hostile areas, and for evacuation/rescue operations. The primary difficulty was that of obtaining well-resolved airload maps covering the arbitrary attitudes that a slung load may take. High speed rotorcraft using tilting rotors and co-axial rotors can fly at speeds that imply high dynamic pressure, making aerodynamic loads significant even on very dense loads such as armored vehicles, artillery weapons, and ammunition. The Continuous Rotation method demonstrated in our prior work enables routine prediction of divergence speeds. We build on prior work to explore the prediction of divergence speed for practical configurations such as military vehicles, which often have complex bluff body shapes.
Technical Paper

Narrow-Band Excitation of Vortex Flows

2015-09-15
2015-01-2572
At high angles of attack, the flow over a swept wing generates counter-rotating vortical features. These features can amplify into a nearly sinusoidal fluctuation of velocity components. The result is excitation of twin-fin buffeting, driven at clearly predictable frequencies, or at nearby lock-in frequencies of the fin structure. This is distinct from the traditional model of fin buffeting as a structural resonant response to broadband, large-amplitude excitation from vortex core bursting. Hot-film anemometry was conducted ahead of the vertical fins of a 1:48 scale model of the F-35B aircraft, in the angle of attack range between 18 and 30 degrees. Auto spectral density functions from these data showed a sharp spectral peak in the flow ahead of the fins for angles of attack between 20 and 28 degrees. Small fences placed on the top surface of the wing eliminated the spectral peak, leaving only a broadband turbulent spectrum.
Journal Article

Interval Finite Element Analysis of Structural Dynamic Problems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0484
We analyze the frequency response of structural dynamic systems with uncertainties in load and material properties. We introduce uncertainties in the system as interval numbers, and use Interval Finite Element Method (IFEM). Overestimation due to dependency is reduced using a new decomposition for the stiffness and mass matrices, as well as for the nodal equivalent load. In addition, primary and derived quantities are simultaneously obtained by means of Lagrangian multipliers that are introduced in the total energy of the system. The obtained interval equations are solved by means of a new variant of the iterative enclosure method resulting in guaranteed enclosures of relevant quantities. Several numerical examples show the accuracy and efficiency of the new formulation.
Technical Paper

Quiet, Clean, and Efficient, but Heavy - Concerns for Future Fuel Cell Powered Personal Air Vehicles

2006-08-30
2006-01-2436
Unfortunately, the promises of efficient, clean, quiet power that fuel cells offer are balanced by extremely low power densities and great infrastructure-related challenges. Studies by government and industry have investigated their feasibility for primary propulsion in light aircraft. These studies have produced mixed results but have tended to rely on integrating fuel cells into existing airframes, with respectably-performing light sport planes being turned into underpowered show planes with horribly compromised range and payload capabilities. Fuel cells today are in the earliest phases of technological development. As an aircraft propulsion system, they are as advanced as the Wright's reciprocating engine was a hundred years ago.
Technical Paper

Monitoring and Diagnostics for Electric Drivetrain Components in HEVs

2006-04-03
2006-01-1124
This paper presents monitoring and diagnostic techniques for drivetrain components in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The particular focus of this work is the gear box of the drivetrain and mechanical faults of the electric motor. Permanent magnet motor magnet failures and rotor eccentricities are investigated and diagnosed. For induction motors, the presented mechanical fault cases are electrical rotor asymmetries (defective bars and end rings) and rotor eccentricities, as well. Apart from stationary operation, the presented techniques can also be applied to transient operating conditions. Measurement results are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Rotor Squeal Suppression Using Dither Control

2001-04-30
2001-01-1605
“Dither” control recently has been experimentally demonstrated to be an effective means to suppress and prevent rotor mode disc brake squeal. Dither control employs a control effort at a frequency higher, oftentimes significantly higher, than the disturbance to be controlled. The control actuator used for the work presented in this paper is a piezoelectric stack actuator located within the piston of a floating caliper brake. The actuator is driven in open-loop control at a frequency greater than the squeal frequency. This actuator configuration and drive signal produces a small fluctuation about the mean clamping force of the brake. The control exhibits a threshold behavior, where complete suppression of brake squeal is achieved once the control effort exceeds a threshold value. This paper examines the dependency of the threshold effort upon the frequency of the dither control signal, applied to the suppression of a 5.6 kHz rotor squeal mode.
Technical Paper

Development of Wing Structural Weight Equation for Active Aeroelastic Wing Technology

1999-10-19
1999-01-5640
A multidisciplinary design study considering the impact of Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) technology on the structural wing weight of a lightweight fighter concept is presented. The study incorporates multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and response surface methods to characterize wing weight as a function of wing geometry. The study involves the sizing of the wing box skins of several fighter configurations to minimum weight subject to static aeroelastic requirements. In addition, the MDO problem makes use of a new capability, trim optimization for redundant control surfaces, to accurately model AAW technology. The response surface methodology incorporates design of experiments, least squares regression, and makes use of the parametric definition of a structural finite element model and aerodynamic model to build response surface equations of wing weight as a function of wing geometric parameters for both AAW technology and conventional control technology.
Technical Paper

Technology Impact Forecasting for a High Speed Civil Transport

1998-09-28
985547
This paper outlines a comprehensive, structured, and robust methodology for decision making in the early phases ofaircraft design. The proposed approach is referred to as the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) method. The seven-step process provides the decision maker/designer with an ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies in the absence of sophisticated, time-consuming mathematical formulations. The method also provides a framework where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed. This goal is achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons could be made.
Technical Paper

Development of Response Surface Equations for High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff and Landing Noise

1997-10-01
975570
As an element of a design optimization study of high speed civil transport (HSCT), response surface equations (RSEs) were developed with the goal of accurately predicting the sideline, takeoff, and approach noise levels for any combination of selected design variables. These RSEs were needed during vehicle synthesis to constrain the aircraft design to meet FAR 36, Stage 3 noise levels. Development of the RSEs was useful as an application of response surface methodology to a previously untested discipline. Noise levels were predicted using the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), with additional corrections to account for inlet and exhaust duct lining, mixer-ejector nozzles, multiple fan stages, and wing reflection. The fan, jet, and airframe contributions were considered in the aircraft source noise prediction.
Technical Paper

Aerothermodynamic Design of Supersonic Channel Airfoils for Drag Reduction

1997-10-01
975572
A supersonic channel airfoil (SCA) concept that can be applied to the leading edges of wings, tails, fins, struts, and other appendages of aircraft, atmospheric entry vehicles and missiles in supersonic flight for drag reduction is described. It is designed to be beneficial at conditions in which the leading edge is significantly blunted and the Mach number normal to the leading edge is supersonic. The concept is found to result in significantly reduced wave drag and total drag (including skin friction drag) and significantly increased L/D. While this reduction over varying flight conditions has been quantified, some leading edge geometries result in adverse increases in peak heat transfer rates. To evaluate the effectiveness of SCAs in reducing drag without paying any penalties in other areas like lifting capacity, heating rates or enclosed volume, the design space was studied in greater detail using MDO methods.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Role of the Wind-Driven Manipulator

1997-10-01
975589
The wind-driven dynamic manipulator is a device which uses the wind tunnel freestream energy to drive multi-axis maneuvers of test models. This paper summarizes work performed using the device in several applications and discusses current work on characterizing the aerodynamics of an X-38 vehicle model in pitch-yaw maneuvers. Previous applications in flow visualization, adaptive control and linear-domain parameter identification are now extended to multi-axis inverse force and moment measurement over large ranges of attitude. A pitch-yaw-roll version is operated with active roll to measure forces and moments during maneuvers. A 3-D look-up table generated from direct force calibration allows operation of the manipulator through nonlinear regimes where control wing stall and boom wake-wing interactions are allowed to occur. Hybrid designs combining conventional and wind-driven degrees of freedom are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Assessment of High Speed Rotorcraft Concepts (HSRC): Reaction Driven Stopped Rotor/Wing Versus Variable Diameter Tiltrotor

1997-10-01
975548
The objective of this paper is to illustrate the methods and tools developed to size and synthesize a stopped rotor/wing vehicle using a reaction drive system, including how this design capability is incorporated into a sizing and synthesis tool, VASCOMP II. This new capability is used to design a vehicle capable of performing a V-22 escort mission, and a sized vehicle description with performance characteristics is presented. The resulting vehicle is then compared side-by-side to a variable diameter tiltrotor designed for the same mission. Results of this analysis indicate that the reaction-driven rotor concept holds promise relative to alternative concepts, but that the variable diameter tiltrotor has several inherent performance advantages. Additionally, the stopped rotor/wing needs considerably more development to reach maturity.
Technical Paper

Low Speed Canard-Tip-Vortex Airfoil Interaction

1997-05-01
971469
This paper describes a series of ongoing experiments to capture the details of perpendicular vortex-airfoil interaction. Three test cases explored are: 1) a 21% thick symmetric airfoil at 1.1° angle of attack, 2)a thin flat plate of 2.5% thickness with rounded leading edge, sharp trailing edge and zero angle of attack and 3) A 12% thick symmetric airfoil at zero angle of attack. The tip vortex was generated by a NACA0016 wing at 5° AOA. The strength of the vortex was computed from the velocity profile measured upstream for the first two cases. Pressure measurements on the 21% airfoil were used to quantify the effect of the vortex as a function of its stand-off distance from the airfoil. Vortex trajectories over the airfoils were obtained from laser sheet videography. The vortex motion conforms to potential flow expectations except in regions of pressure gradient and during head-on interaction.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Multidisciplinary Synthesis: An Aero-Structures-Control Application Using Statistical Techniques

1996-10-01
965501
An evolving aircraft synthesis simulation environment which offers improvements to existing methods at multiple levels of a design process is described in this paper. As design databases become obsolete due to the introduction of new technologies and classes of vehicles and as sophisticated analysis codes are often too computationally expensive for iterative applications, the design engineer may find a lack of usable information needed for decision making. Within the environment developed in this paper, rapid sensitivity analysis is possible through a unique representation of the relationship between fundamental design variables and system objectives. The combined use of the Design of Experiments and Response Surface techniques provides the ability to form this design relationship among system variables and target values, which is termed design-oriented in nature.
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