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Technical Paper

Yaw Effects on the Narrowband Spectra Above a Delta Wing in Turbulent Flow

2016-09-20
2016-01-2056
Combat aircraft maneuvering at high angles of attack or in landing approach are likely to encounter conditions where the flow over the swept wings is yawed. This paper examines the effect of yaw on the spectra of turbulence above and aft of the wing, in the region where fins and control surfaces are located. Prior work has shown the occurrence of narrowband velocity fluctuations in this region for most combat aircraft models, including those with twin fins. Fin vibration and damage has been traced to excitation by such narrowband fluctuations. The narrowband fluctuations themselves have been traced to the wing surface. The issue in this paper is the effect of yaw on these fluctuations, as well as on the aerodynamic loads on a wing, without including the perturbations due to the airframe.
Technical Paper

Narrow-Band Excitation of Vortex Flows

2015-09-15
2015-01-2572
At high angles of attack, the flow over a swept wing generates counter-rotating vortical features. These features can amplify into a nearly sinusoidal fluctuation of velocity components. The result is excitation of twin-fin buffeting, driven at clearly predictable frequencies, or at nearby lock-in frequencies of the fin structure. This is distinct from the traditional model of fin buffeting as a structural resonant response to broadband, large-amplitude excitation from vortex core bursting. Hot-film anemometry was conducted ahead of the vertical fins of a 1:48 scale model of the F-35B aircraft, in the angle of attack range between 18 and 30 degrees. Auto spectral density functions from these data showed a sharp spectral peak in the flow ahead of the fins for angles of attack between 20 and 28 degrees. Small fences placed on the top surface of the wing eliminated the spectral peak, leaving only a broadband turbulent spectrum.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft Using Neural Networks

1997-10-13
975613
Neural network augmented model inversion control is used to provide a civilian tilt-rotor aircraft with consistent response characteristics throughout its operating envelope, including conversion flight. The implemented response types are Attitude Command Attitude Hold in the longitudinal channel, and Rate Command Attitude Hold about the roll and yaw axes. This article describes the augmentation in the roll channel and the augmentation for the yaw motion including Heading Hold at low airspeeds and automatic Turn Coordination at cruise flight. Conventional methods require extensive gain scheduling with tilt-rotor nacelle angle and airspeed. A control architecture is developed that can alleviate this requirement and thus has the potential to reduce development time. It also facilitates the implementation of desired handling qualities, and permits compensation for partial failures.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Control Using Stagnation Point Displacement

1997-10-01
975590
A Stagnation Point Actuator is used to control the lateral dynamics of vortices generated over a sharp-pointed forebody, at high angles of attack, and the resulting rolling moment is studied. Effective roll control is demonstrated, including the ability to suppress the wing rock phenomenon. Piecewise-linear transfer functions are developed from experimental data for the changes in roll moment and pressure difference with actuator frequency content. These transfer functions are reduced to compact form in the frequency domain, and then to a time-domain model using 2 gains and 2 time scales. The roll response is classified according to angle of attack range. Some long time scales are observed in the surface pressure, velocity field and rolling moment, making the response relatively insensitive to speed. Thus over substantial speed ranges, linear transfer functions are shown to effectively describe the roll response to motion of the Stagnation Point Actuator.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Role of the Wind-Driven Manipulator

1997-10-01
975589
The wind-driven dynamic manipulator is a device which uses the wind tunnel freestream energy to drive multi-axis maneuvers of test models. This paper summarizes work performed using the device in several applications and discusses current work on characterizing the aerodynamics of an X-38 vehicle model in pitch-yaw maneuvers. Previous applications in flow visualization, adaptive control and linear-domain parameter identification are now extended to multi-axis inverse force and moment measurement over large ranges of attitude. A pitch-yaw-roll version is operated with active roll to measure forces and moments during maneuvers. A 3-D look-up table generated from direct force calibration allows operation of the manipulator through nonlinear regimes where control wing stall and boom wake-wing interactions are allowed to occur. Hybrid designs combining conventional and wind-driven degrees of freedom are discussed.
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