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Technical Paper

An Optical and Numerical Characterization of Directly Injected Compressed Natural Gas Jet Development at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0294
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is an attractive, alternative fuel for spark-ignited (SI), internal combustion (IC) engines due to its high octane rating, and low energy-specific CO2 emissions compared with gasoline. Directly-injected (DI) CNG in SI engines has the potential to dramatically decrease vehicles’ carbon emissions; however, optimization of DI CNG fueling systems requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of CNG jets in an engine environment. This paper therefore presents an experimental and modeling study of DI gaseous jets, using methane as a surrogate for CNG. Experiments are conducted in a non-reacting, constant volume chamber (CVC) using prototype injector hardware at conditions relevant to modern DI engines. The schlieren imaging technique is employed to investigate how the extent of methane jets is impacted by changing thermodynamic conditions in the fuel rail and chamber.
Technical Paper

The Direct Transition of Fuel Sprays to theDense-Fluid Mixing Regime in the Contextof Modern Compression Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0298
Fuel supercriticality has recently received significant attention due to the elevated pressures and temperatures that directly-injected (DI) fuel sprays encounter in modern internal combustion (IC) engines. This paper presents a theoretical examination of conventional and alternative DI fuels at conditions relevant to the operation of compression ignition (CI) engines. The focus is to identify the conditions under which the injected liquid fuel can bypass the atomization process and directly transition to a diffusional mixing regime with the chamber gas. Evaluating the microscopic length-scales of the phase boundary associated with the injection of liquid nitrogen into its own vapor, it is found that the conventional threshold based on the interfacial Knudsen number (i.e. Kn = 0.1) does not adequately quantify the direct transition between sub- and supercriticality. Instead, a threshold that is an order of magnitude smaller is more appropriate for this purpose.
Technical Paper

Tradeoff Study of High Altitude Solar Reflector Concepts

2017-09-19
2017-01-2143
A direct solution to Global Warming would be to reflect a part of sunlight back into Space. A system tradeoff study is being developed with three of the concepts that are being evaluated as long-endurance high-altitude reflectors. The first concept is a high aspect ratio solar powered flying wing towing reflector sheets. This concept is named “Flying Carpet”. Second is a centrifugally stretched high altitude solar reflector (CSHASR). The CSHASR has 4 rotors made of reflector sheets with a hub stretching to 60 percent of the radius, held together by an ultralight quad-rotor structure. Each rotor is powered by a solar-electric motor. A variation on this concept, forced by nighttime descent rate concerns, is powered by tip-mounted solar panels and propellers with some battery storage augmenting rotational inertia as well as energy storage. The third concept is an Aerostatically Balanced Reflector (ABR) sheet, held up by hydrogen balloons.
Technical Paper

High-Performance Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Design Studies and Considerations

2015-04-14
2015-01-1158
This paper presents a detailed design study and associated considerations supporting the development of high-performance plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Due to increasingly strict governmental regulations and increased consumer demand, automotive manufacturers have been tasked with the reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. PHEV powertrains can provide a needed balance in terms of fuel economy and vehicle performance by exploiting regenerative braking, pure electric vehicle operation, engine load-point shifting, and power-enhancing hybrid traction modes. Thus, properly designed PHEV powertrains can reduce fuel consumption while increasing vehicle utility and performance.
Technical Paper

Control of PHEV and HEV Parallel Powertrains Using a Sequential Linearization Algorithm

2015-04-14
2015-01-1219
Using measurable physical input variables, an implementable control algorithm for parallel architecture plug-in and non-plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV and HEV) powertrains is presented. The control of the electric drive is based on an algebraic mapping of the accelerator pedal position, the battery state-of-charge (SOC), and the vehicle velocity into a motor controller input torque command. This mapping is developed using a sequential linearization control (SLC) methodology. The internal combustion engine (ICE) control uses a modified accelerator pedal to throttle plate angle using an adjustable gain parameter that, in turn, determines the sustained battery SOC. Searches over an admissible control space or the use of pre-defined look-up tables are thus avoided. Actual on-road results for a Ford Explorer with a through-the-road (TTR) hybrid powertrain using this control methodology are presented.
Journal Article

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame - A Comparison between US#2 and Biodiesel Soot

2012-04-16
2012-01-0695
For a better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in conventional diesel and biodiesel spray flames, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in spray flames fuelled with US#2 diesel and soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at 50mm from the injector nozzle, which corresponds to the peak soot location in the spray flames. The spray flames were generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and high temperature condition (6.7MPa, 1000K). Direct sampling permits a more direct assessment of soot as it is formed and oxidized in the flame, as opposed to exhaust PM measurements. Density of sampled soot particles, diameter of primary particles, size (gyration radius) and compactness (fractal dimension) of soot aggregates were analyzed and compared. No analysis of the soot micro-structure was made.
Journal Article

Power-Split HEV Control Strategy Development with Refined Engine Transients

2012-04-16
2012-01-0629
Power-split hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) employ two power paths between the internal combustion (IC) engine and the driven wheels routed through gearing and electric machines (EMs) composing an electrically variable transmission (EVT). The EVT allows IC engine control such that rotational speed can be independent of vehicle speed at all times. By breaking the rigid mechanical connection between the IC engine and the driven wheels, the EVT allows the IC engine to operate in the most efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. If the most efficient IC engine operating point produces more power than is requested by the driver, the excess IC engine power can be stored in the energy storage system (ESS) and used later. Conversely, if the most efficient IC engine operating point does not meet the power request of the driver, the ESS delivers the difference to the wheels through the EMs.
Journal Article

New Attempts on Vehicle Suspension Systems Modeling and Its Application on Dynamical Load Analysis

2011-09-13
2011-01-2171
Suspension system dynamics can be obtained by various methods and vehicle design has gained great advantages over the dynamics analysis. By employing the new Udwadia-Kalaba equation, we endeavor some attempts on its application to dynamic modeling of vehicle suspension systems. The modeling approach first segments the suspension system into several component subsystems with kinematic constraints at the segment points released. The equations of motion of the unconstrained subsystems are thus easily obtained. Then by applying the second order constraints, the suspension system dynamics is then obtained. The equations are of closed-form. Having the equations obtained, we then show its application on dynamical load analysis. The solutions for the dynamical loads at interested hard points are obtained. We use the double wishbone suspension to show the systematic approach is easy handling.
Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

2011-08-30
2011-01-2046
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Journal Article

Life-Cycle Environmental Impact of Michelin Tweel® Tire for Passenger Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0093
Recently Michelin has been developing a new airless, integrated tire and wheel combination called the Tweel® tire. The Tweel tire aims at performance levels beyond those possible with conventional pneumatic technology because of its shear band design, added suspension, and potentially decreased rolling resistance. In this paper, we will focus on the environmental impact of the Tweel tire during its life-cycle from manufacturing, through use and disposal. Since the Tweel tire is currently still in the research phase and is not manufactured and used on a large scale, there are uncertainties with respect to end-of-life scenarios and rolling resistance estimates that will affect the LCA. Nevertheless, some preliminary conclusions of the Tweel tire's environmental performance in comparison to a conventional radial tire can be drawn.
Technical Paper

Active Anti-lock Brake System for Low Powered Vehicles Using Cable-Type Brakes

2010-04-12
2010-01-0076
This paper presents a study of the effects of anti-lock brakes on a vehicle with cable-type brakes with respect to stopping distance and vehicle control. While ABS is common on motorcycles and some hydraulic braking systems for mopeds, little research has been done on the use of anti-locks for low-powered vehicles using non-hydraulic brakes. A bicycle with cable-type brakes has been retrofitted with an active ABS. Experiments were carried out to compare the braking distance when the ABS was activated and deactivated. The study found that ABS did not sacrifice braking distance while improving vehicle control.
Technical Paper

An Analytic Foundation for the Two-Mode Hybrid-Electric Powertrain with a Comparison to the Single-Mode Toyota Prius THS-II Powertrain

2009-04-20
2009-01-1321
General Motors has introduced a Two-Mode Transmission (2-MT) that provides significant improvements over the Toyota THS-II transmission. These improvements are achieved by employing additional planetaries with clutches and brakes to switch from a Mode-1 to Mode-2 as vehicle speed increases. In addition the 2-MT has four fixed-gear ratios that provide for a purely mechanical energy path from the IC engine to the driven wheels with the electric machines also able to provide additional driving torque. The purpose of this present paper is to extend the methodology in a previous paper [1] to include the 2-MT, thereby presenting an analytic foundation for its operation. The main contribution in this analysis is in the definition of dimensionless separation factors, defined in each mode that govern the power split between the parallel mechanical and electrical energy paths from the IC engine to the driven wheels.
Technical Paper

Physical Properties of Bio-Diesel and Implications for Use of Bio-Diesel in Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4030
In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both conventional diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1545
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) design with design parameters electric motor size, engine size, battery capacity, and battery chemistry type, is optimized with minimum cost as a measure of merit. The PHEV is required to meet a fixed set of performance constraints consisting of 0-60 mph acceleration, 50-70 mph acceleration, 0-30 mph acceleration in all electric operation, top speed, grade ability, and all electric range. The optimization is carried out for values of all electric range of 10, 20, and 40 miles. The social and economic impacts of the optimum designs in terms of reduced gasoline consumption and carbon emissions reduction are calculated. Argonne National Laboratory's Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit is used to simulate the performance and fuel economy of the PHEV designs. The costs of different PHEV components and the present value of battery replacements over the vehicle's life are used to determine the design's drivetrain cost.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Dither Control on Effective Braking Torque

2003-05-05
2003-01-1617
Automotive brake squeal is a problem that has plagued the automotive industry for years. Many noise cancellation techniques have been published. One such technique is the use of an external dither signal, that has been shown to suppress automotive disc brake squeal in experiments with a brake dynamometer, but the effect of this control on the system's braking torque has yet to be determined. By imposing a high frequency disturbance normally into the brake pad, squeal is suppressed. There are many studies that lead to the conclusion of a lower effective braking torque due to the high frequency dither control signal. Under the assumption of Hertzian contact stiffness it has been speculated that the loss in braking torque is due to a lowering of the average normal force. There has also been work done that proves that the application of a dither signal in the normal direction eliminates the ‘stick-slip’ oscillation that causes brake squeal by an effective decrease in the friction force.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Rotor Squeal Suppression Using Dither Control

2001-04-30
2001-01-1605
“Dither” control recently has been experimentally demonstrated to be an effective means to suppress and prevent rotor mode disc brake squeal. Dither control employs a control effort at a frequency higher, oftentimes significantly higher, than the disturbance to be controlled. The control actuator used for the work presented in this paper is a piezoelectric stack actuator located within the piston of a floating caliper brake. The actuator is driven in open-loop control at a frequency greater than the squeal frequency. This actuator configuration and drive signal produces a small fluctuation about the mean clamping force of the brake. The control exhibits a threshold behavior, where complete suppression of brake squeal is achieved once the control effort exceeds a threshold value. This paper examines the dependency of the threshold effort upon the frequency of the dither control signal, applied to the suppression of a 5.6 kHz rotor squeal mode.
Technical Paper

Battery Modeling for HEV Simulation Model Development

2001-03-05
2001-01-0960
Battery modeling is of major concern for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and Electric vehicle (EV) modeling. The major issue lies in characterizing the battery power output in relation to battery's State of Charge (SOC) in various application conditions. In particular, the challenge is associated with the difficulty that the characteristic parameters of the battery, i.e. the accurate data on the open circuit voltage and the internal resistance are hardly obtainable in practical conditions. In this paper, a battery capacity representation and a practical way of battery modeling is introduced for simulation model development based on the experimental data. A realistic way of battery SOC representation is generated from the battery output data. Empirical formulation is derived from the data to correlate the battery current, voltage output with the battery SOC.
Technical Paper

A Generalized Model for Vehicle Thermodynamic Loss Management and Technology Concept Evaluation

2000-10-10
2000-01-5562
The objective of this paper is to develop a generalized loss management model to account for the usage of thermodynamic work potential in vehicles of any type. The key to accomplishing this is creation of a differential representation for vehicle loss as a function of operating condition. This differential model is then integrated through time to obtain an analytical estimate for total usage (and loss) of work potential consumed by each loss mechanism present during vehicle operation. The end result of this analysis is a better understanding of how the work potential initially present in the fuel, batteries, etc. is partitioned amongst all losses relevant to the vehicle's operation. The loss partitioning estimated from this loss management model can be used in conjunction with cost accounting systems to gain a better understanding of underlying drivers on vehicle manufacturing and operating costs.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation and Evaluation for UT-HEV

2000-08-21
2000-01-3105
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) simulation has been developed for an electric-assist parallel configuration vehicle, at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The model was developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using ADVISOR, a HEV simulation model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Neon simulation model implements a power control strategy using throttle position as the primary input. It incorporates other features of HEV power control such as battery regeneration and regenerative braking. A practical way of battery modeling is incorporated into this model. The model also simulates the vehicle operation as a pure electric vehicle (EV) or as a conventional vehicle (heat engine only). By using the Neon model, the performance of the vehicle has been analyzed using parametric analysis of the vehicle components and power control parameters. Recommendations are given for improving the design based on the simulation results.
Technical Paper

A Hydrogen Sulfide/Air Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

1992-08-03
929164
A fuel cell which uses pure hydrogen sulfide as fuel and a solid electrolyte of ceria stabilized with yttria (YSC) has been proposed, with the configuration H2S, Pt/YSC/Pt, O2 (air), operating at temperatures of 600 to 800° C. Initial experiments will use platinum electrodes, with subsequent runs using various perovskite type electrodes. The YSC electrolye system exhibits better ionic conductivity than the more familiar YSZ electrolytes, and thus the fuel cell will operate at a lower temperature range. Cell component manufacture, cell experiments, and analytical techniques are discussed.
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