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Technical Paper

A Coupled Tabulated Kinetics and Flame Propagation Model for the Simulation of Fumigated Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0098
The present work describes the numerical modeling of medium-speed marine engines, operating under a fumigated dual-fuel concept, i.e. with the second fuel injected in the ports. Due to the need to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency, manufacturers are investigating new engine technologies. In the maritime industry, a promising technology to achieve these goals is that of fumigated dual-fuel engines, allowing a large amount of diesel to be replaced by a premixed fuel. To fully optimize the operational parameters of such a large maritime engine, computational fluid dynamics can be very helpful. Accurately describing the combustion process in such an engine is key, as the prediction of the heat release and the pollutant formation is crucial. Auto-ignition of the diesel fuel needs to be captured, followed by the combustion and flame propagation of the premixed fuel.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characterization of Methanol in a Lean Burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0566
Lean operation is a promising approach to increase the engine efficiency. One of the main challenges for lean-burn technology is the combustion instability. Using a high laminar burning velocity fuel such as methanol might solve that problem. The potential of lean-burn limit extension with methanol was investigated through a comparison with conventional gasoline. In this work, a direct injection turbocharged SI engine was operated at wide open throttle (WOT), with the load controlled by a lean-burn strategy. The amount of fuel was decreased (or lambda increased) until the combustion became unstable. For methanol, the lambda limit was about 1.5, higher than the lambda limit for gasoline which was only about 1.2. The brake thermal efficiency for methanol increased as lambda increased and reached its peak at ~41% in a lambda range of 1.2-1.4. Then, the efficiency decreased as lambda increased.
Technical Paper

A Heat Transfer Model for Low Temperature Combustion Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1662
Low Temperature Combustion is a technology that enables achieving both a higher efficiency and simultaneously lower emissions of NOx and particulate matter. It is a noun for combustion regimes that operate with a lean air-fuel mixture and where the combustion occurs at a low temperature, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition and Partially Premixed Combustion. In this work a new model is proposed to predict the instantaneous heat flux in engines with Low Temperature Combustion. In-cylinder heat flux measurements were used to construct this model. The new model addresses two shortcomings of the existing heat transfer models already present during motored operation: the phasing of the instantaneous heat flux and the overprediction of the heat flux during the expansion phase. This was achieved by implementing the in-cylinder turbulence in the heat transfer model. The heat transfer during the combustion was taken into account by using the turbulence generated in the burned zone.
Technical Paper

Downsizing Potential of Methanol Fueled DISI Engine with Variable Valve Timing and Boost Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0918
Methanol is gaining traction in some regions, e.g. for road transportation in China and for marine transportation in Europe. In this research, the possibility for achieving higher power output and higher efficiency with methanol, compared to gasoline, is investigated and the influence of several engine settings, such as valve timing and intake boost control, is studied. At wide open throttle (WOT), engine speed of 1650 rpm, the brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the methanol-fueled engine is higher than on gasoline, by around 1.8 bar. The maximum BMEP is further increased when positive valve overlap and higher intake boost pressure are applied. Thanks to a lower residual gas fraction, and a richer in-cylinder mixture with positive valve overlap period, the engine BMEP improves by a further 2.6 bar. Because of higher volumetric efficiency with a boosted intake air, the engine BMEP enhances with 4.7 bar.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Wall Heat Flux Models for Full Cycle CFD Simulation of Internal Combustion Engines under Motoring Operation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0032
The present work details a study of the heat flux through the walls of an internal combustion engine. The determination of this heat flux is an important aspect in engine optimization, as it influences the power, efficiency and the emissions of the engine. Therefore, a set of simulation tools in the OpenFOAM® software has been developed, that allows the calculation of the heat transfer through engine walls for ICEs. Normal practice in these types of engine simulations is to apply a wall function model to calculate the heat flux, rather than resolving the complete thermo-viscous boundary layer, and perform simulations of the closed engine cycle. When dealing with a complex engine, this methodology will reduce the overall computational cost. It however increases the need to rely on assumptions on both the initial flow field and the behavior in the near-wall region.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation and Modelling of the In-Cylinder Heat Transfer during Ringing Combustion in an HCCI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0732
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines can achieve both a high thermal efficiency and near-zero emissions of NOx and soot. However, their maximum attainable load is limited by the occurrence of a ringing combustion. At high loads, the fast combustion rate gives rise to pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber accompanied by a ringing or knocking sound. In this work, it is investigated how these pressure oscillations affect the in-cylinder heat transfer and what the best approach is to model the heat transfer during ringing combustion. The heat transfer is measured with a thermopile heat flux sensor inside a CFR engine converted to HCCI operation. A variation of the mass fuel rate at different compression ratios is performed to measure the heat transfer during three different operating conditions: no, light and severe ringing. The occurrence of ringing increases both the peak heat flux and the total heat loss.
Technical Paper

Development of Laminar Burning Velocity Correlation for the Simulation of Methanol Fueled SI Engines Operated with Onboard Fuel Reformer

2017-03-28
2017-01-0539
Methanol fueled spark ignition (SI) engines have the potential for very high efficiency using an advanced heat recovery system for fuel reforming. In order to allow simulation of such an engine system, several sub-models are needed. This paper reports the development of two laminar burning velocity correlations, corresponding to two reforming concepts, one in which the reformer uses water from an extra tank to produce hydrogen rich gas (syngas) and another that employs the water vapor in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream to produce reformed-EGR (R-EGR). This work uses a one-dimensional (1D) flame simulation tool with a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism to predict the laminar burning velocities of methanol/syngas blends and correlate it. The syngas is a mixture of H2/CO/CO2 with a CO selectivity of 6.5% to simulate the methanol steam reforming products over a Cu-Mn/Al catalyst.
Technical Paper

Studying the Effect of the Flame Passage on the Convective Heat Transfer in a S.I. Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0515
Engine optimization requires a good understanding of the in-cylinder heat transfer since it affects the power output, engine efficiency and emissions of the engine. However little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to its complexity. To aid the understanding of the heat transfer phenomena in a Spark Ignition (SI) engine, accurate measurements of the local instantaneous heat flux are wanted. An improved understanding will lead to better heat transfer modelling, which will improve the accuracy of current simulation software. In this research, prototype thin film gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors are used to capture the transient in-cylinder heat flux within a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. A two-zone temperature model is linked with the heat flux data. This allows the distinction between the convection coefficient in the unburned and burned zone.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Use of Thin Film Gauges for Heat Flux Measurements in ICEs: Measurements on an Inlet Valve in Motored Operation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0641
To optimize internal combustion engines (ICEs), a good understanding of engine operation is essential. The heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls plays an important role, not only for the performance, but also for the emissions of the engine. Besides, thermal management of ICEs is becoming more and more important as an additional tool for optimizing efficiency and emission aftertreatment. In contrast little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to the complexity of the working processes. Heat transfer measurements inside the combustion chamber pose a challenge in instrumentation due to the harsh environment. Additionally, the heat loss in a spark ignition (SI) engine shows a high temporal and spatial variation. This poses certain requirements on the heat flux sensor. In this paper we examine the heat transfer in a production SI ICE through the use of Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a DISI Production Engine Fuelled with Methanol, Ethanol, Butanol and ISO-Stoichiometric Alcohol Blends

2015-04-14
2015-01-0768
Stricter CO2 and emissions regulations are pushing spark ignition engines more and more towards downsizing, enabled through direct injection and turbocharging. The advantages which come with direct injection, such as increased charge density and an elevated knock resistance, are even more pronounced when using low carbon number alcohols instead of gasoline. This is mainly due to the higher heat of vaporization and the lower air-to-fuel ratio of light alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. These alcohols are also attractive alternatives to gasoline because they can be produced from renewable resources. Because they are liquid, they can be easily stored in a vehicle. In this respect, the performance and engine-out emissions (NOx, CO, HC and PM) of methanol, ethanol and butanol were examined on a 4 cylinder 2.4 DI production engine and are compared with those on neat gasoline.
Technical Paper

The Behavior of a Simplified Spray Model for Different Diesel and Bio-Diesel Surrogates

2015-04-14
2015-01-0950
The need for simulation tools for the internal combustion engine is becoming more and more important due to the complex engine design and increasingly strict emission regulation. One needs accurate and fast models, but fuels consist of a complex mixture of different molecules which cannot realistically be handled in computations. Simplifications are required and are realized using fuel surrogates. The main goal of this work is to show that the choice of the surrogates is of importance if simplified models are used and that the performance strongly depends upon the sensitivity of the fuel properties that refer to the main model hypotheses. This paper starts with an overview of surrogates for diesel and bio-diesel as well as the motivation for choosing them. Next, a phenomenological model for vaporizing fuel-sprays is implemented to assess how well-known surrogates for diesel and bio-diesel affect the obtained results.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Empirical Heat Transfer Models for a CFR Engine Operated in HCCI Mode

2015-04-14
2015-01-1750
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are a promising alternative to traditional spark- and compression-ignition engines, due to their high thermal efficiency and near-zero emissions of NOx and soot. Simulation software is an essential tool in the development and optimization of these engines. The heat transfer submodel used in simulation software has a large influence on the accuracy of the simulation results, due to its significant effect on the combustion. In this work several empirical heat transfer models are assessed on their ability to accurately predict the heat flux in a CFR engine during HCCI operation. Models are investigated that are developed for traditional spark- and compression-ignition engines such as those from Annand [1], Woschni [2] and Hohenberg [3] and also models developed for HCCI engines such as those from Chang et al. [4] and Hensel et al. [5].
Journal Article

Calibration of a TFG Sensor for Heat Flux Measurements in a S.I. Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1645
In the development of internal combustion engines, measurements of the heat transfer to the cylinder walls play an important role. These measurements are necessary to provide data for building a model of the heat transfer, which can be used to further develop simulation tools for engine optimization. This research will focus on the Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensor. This sensor consists of a platinum RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) on an insulating Macor® (ceramic) substrate. The sensor has a high frequency response (up to 100 kHz) and is small and robust. These properties make the TFG sensor adequate for measurements in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. To use this sensor, its thermal properties - namely the temperature sensitivity coefficient and the thermal product - must be correctly calibrated. First, different calibration setups with a different temperature range are used to calibrate the temperature sensitivity coefficient of the TFG sensor.
Technical Paper

Design of a Fast Responding Start-Up Mechanism for Bi-Propellant Fueled Engine for Miniature UAV Applications

2013-09-17
2013-01-2305
In this work a new design of a liquid fuelled combustion engine is proposed for small and light weight unmanned air vehicles (<10kg and 15-200N thrust). Ethanol and gasoline were selected as the potential fuels while pressurized air and hydrogen peroxide were used as the oxidizer. The engine combines features of both a common rocket and turbojet engine. The main features of the engine are the restart ability during flight, low cost, easy manufacturability, light weight, long operation time and high durability. The main difficulties that come along with this engine are the need for proper engine cooling (long term operation) and start-up ability at atmospheric conditions. The low temperatures and injection pressures are not favorable for the fuel atomization and ignition. The paper focuses on the design on low pressure injectors and a start-up mechanism for micro UAV's without the use of a large amount of additional fueling circuits or components.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Flow-Field-Based Heat Transfer Model for Premixed Spark-Ignition Engines on Hydrogen

2013-04-08
2013-01-0225
Hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engines are an attractive alternative to current drive trains, because a high efficiency is possible throughout the load range and only emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can be emitted. The latter is an important constraint for power and efficiency optimization. Optimizing the engine with experiments is time consuming, so thermodynamic models of the engine cycle are being developed to speed up this process. Such a model has to accurately predict the heat transfer in the engine, because it affects all optimization targets. The standard heat transfer models (Annand and Woschni) have already been cited to be inaccurate for hydrogen engines. However, little work has been devoted to the evaluation of the flow-field based heat transfer model, which is the topic of this paper. The model is evaluated with measurements that focus on the effect of the fuel, under motored and fired operation.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Knock Prediction Model for Methanol-Fuelled SI Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1312
Knock is one of the main factors limiting the efficiency of spark-ignition engines. The introduction of alternative fuels with elevated knock resistance could help to mitigate knock concerns. Alcohols are prime candidate fuels and a model that can accurately predict their autoignition behavior under varying engine operating conditions would be of great value to engine designers. The current work aims to develop such a model for neat methanol. First, an autoignition delay time correlation is developed based on chemical kinetics calculations. Subsequently, this correlation is used in a knock integral model that is implemented in a two-zone engine code. The predictive performance of the resulting model is validated through comparison against experimental measurements on a CFR engine for a range of compression ratios, loads, ignition timings and equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Some Important Boundary Conditions for Spray Measurements in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

2013-04-08
2013-01-1610
Fuel atomization and combustion at engine-like conditions are complicated and sensitive processes which make it hard to perform quantitative experiments with high precision and reproducibility. A better understanding of the processes can be obtained by controlling the boundary conditions. Variable parameters with an important influence on the sprays include fuel temperature, chamber temperature, injection pressure, gas velocity. Controlling all these parameters in an experimental setup is not evident since a lot of them fluctuate with time or interact with each other. Constant volume combustion chambers, using the pre-combustion method, have already shown to be a useful experimental tool for this kind of research purposes. The obtained quantitative results can in a next step be used to evaluate either multi-dimensional or simplified lower dimensional models.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a SI Engine using Methanol-Water Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1319
Using liquid alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol, in spark-ignition engines is a promising approach to decarbonize transport and secure domestic energy supply. Methanol and ethanol are compatible with the existing fuelling and distribution infrastructure and are easily stored in a vehicle. They can be used in internal combustion engines with only minor adjustments and have the potential to increase the efficiency and decrease noxious emissions compared to gasoline engines. In addition, methanol can be synthesized from a wide variety of sources, including renewably produced hydrogen in combination with atmospheric CO₂. Presently, during the production of ethanol or methanol a dehydration step is always applied. This step accounts for a significant part of the entire production process' energy consumption and thus, from an economical point of view, methanol and ethanol could become more interesting alternative fuels if the costs related with dehydration could be reduced.
Journal Article

High-Speed Characterization of ECN Spray A Using Various Diagnostic Techniques

2013-04-08
2013-01-1616
Diesel spray experimentation at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions is intended to provide a more fundamental understanding of diesel combustion than can be achieved in engine experiments. This level of understanding is needed to develop the high-fidelity multi-scale CFD models that will be used to optimize future engine designs. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but because of the uniqueness of each facility, there are uncertainties about their operation. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a worldwide group of institutions using combustion vessels, whose aim is to advance the state of spray and combustion knowledge at engine-relevant conditions. A key activity is the use of spray chamber facilities operated at specific target conditions in order to leverage research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all ECN participants.
Technical Paper

Drive Cycle Analysis of Load Control Strategies for Methanol Fuelled ICE Vehicle

2012-09-10
2012-01-1606
The use of methanol as spark-ignition engine fuel can help to increase energy security and offers the prospect of carbon neutral transport. Methanol's properties enable considerable improvements in engine performance, efficiency and CO2 emissions compared to gasoline operation. SAE paper 2012-01-1283 showed that both flex-fuel and dedicated methanol engines can benefit from an operating strategy employing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to control the load while leaving the throttle wide open (WOT). Compared to throttled stoichiometric operation, this reduces pumping work, cooling losses, dissociation and engine-out NOx. The current paper presents follow-up work to determine to what extent these advantages still stand over an entire drive cycle. The average vehicle efficiency, overall CO2 and NOx emissions from a flexible fuel vehicle completing a drive cycle on gasoline and methanol were evaluated.
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