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Technical Paper

A Smart Icing Detection System for Any Location on the Outer Aircraft Surface

2019-06-10
2019-01-1931
Given approximately one million small and light aircraft in operation worldwide, icing detection and icing quantification of in-flight icing are still an open research topic. Despite technical means are available to de-ice on ground, there is a lack of a suitable control system based on sensor data to de-ice while the aircraft is airborne. Most often, it is still task of the pilot to visually inspect the icing status of the airfoil and/or other critical parts of the aircraft such as engine air intakes, which distracts the flight crew from flying the aircraft especially in IMC conditions. Based on preliminary simulation and tests in 2014 in a collaborative research project lasting from 2015 until 2018, the technology of energy self-sustaining, wireless, self-adhesive smart sensors for industrial sensing in an aerodynamically critical environment (i.e. wind turbines) was further investigated to fulfil general aviation requirements.
Technical Paper

Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0869
Automated, conductive charging systems enable both, the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Especially by the use of heavy and unhandy cables for fast charging, these systems offer user friendly vehicle charging - in particularly in combination with autonomously driving and parking vehicles. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations with standard charging connectors and vehicle inlets and the development of a fully-automated charging robot for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, MAGNA Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering at Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded research project titled “Comfortable Mobility by Technology Integration (KoMoT)”.
Technical Paper

Highly Dynamic Intake and Exhaust Back Pressure Control

2019-01-09
2019-26-0147
Measuring emissions of internal combustion engines-not only at steady-state conditions, but also with highly dynamic test cycles-is an important issue in modern engine development. Due to the fact that ambient conditions have an essential influence on power and emissions of internal combustion engines, test beds used for such measurements typically incorporate intake air and exhaust back pressure control for reasons of repeatability, accuracy and comparability. As test cycle dynamics get faster and legal pressure tolerances get narrower, pressure control becomes more demanding and simple PI control schemes are pushed to their limits; therefore, more sophisticated control schemes are necessary. In this paper, a linearised model is first derived and then used to both simplify and optimise PI controller tuning. This is done by means of frequency domain methods. Limitations to such controllers and possible approaches to overcome them are discussed.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Comparison in Small, Fast Running Gasoline Engines for Non-Automotive Applications

2018-10-30
2018-32-0077
Small engines for non-automotive applications include 2-stroke and 4-stroke gasoline engine concepts which have a reduced number of sensors due to cost and packaging constraints. In order to cope with future emission regulations, more sophisticated engine control and monitoring becomes mandatory. Therefore, a cost-effective way has to be found to gain maximum information from the existing sensors and actuators. Due to an increasing bio-fuel share in the market, the detection of bio-fuel content is necessary to guarantee a stable combustion by adapting the injection and ignition control strategy. Meaningful information about the combustion can be retrieved from combustion chamber ion current measurements. This paper proposes a general overview of combustion process monitoring in different engine concepts by measuring the ion current during combustion.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Real Drive Emission and Fuel Economy Simulation of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0030
As the number of different engine and vehicle concepts for powered-two wheelers is very high and will even rise with hybridization, the simulation of emissions and fuel consumption is indispensable for further development towards more environmentally friendly mobility. In this work, an adaptive artificial neural network based predictive model for emission and fuel consumption simulation of motorcycles operated in real world conditions is presented. The model is developed in Matlab and Simulink and is integrated into a longitudinal vehicle dynamic simulation whereby it is possible to simulate various and not yet measured test cycles. Subsequently, it is possible to predict real drive emissions RDE and on-road fuel consumption by a minimum of previous measurement effort.
Technical Paper

Fast Full Wave Simulation of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Testing by Iterative Coupling of Analytical and Numerical Methods

2018-06-13
2018-01-1470
The pulse-echo method of non-destructive ultrasonic material testing is modeled by an iterative coupling scheme combining analytical and numerical methods in different domains. The approach offers significant advantages in terms of computational efficiency compared to volumetric mesh-based numerical models if the distance between transducer and specimen is large compared to the wavelength in the coupling medium. Excitation and results are given in the time domain while computations are performed in the frequency domain and are compatible with usual FEM solvers for linear elasticity. Due to the use of interpolated phase-shifted transfer functions only a small number of frequency lines is required in comparison to a direct Fourier transform of signals. The method is illustrated alongside a typical application on a steel structure embedded in water.
Technical Paper

System Design Model for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains using Design of Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-0417
The paper focuses on an optimization methodology, which uses Design of Experiments (DoE) methods to define component parameters of parallel hybrid powertrains such as number of gears, transmission spread, gear ratios, progression factor, electric motor power, electric motor nominal speed, battery voltage and cell capacity. Target is to find the optimal configuration based on specific customer targets (e.g. fuel consumption, performance targets). In the method developed here, the hybrid drive train configuration and the combustion engine are considered as fixed components. The introduced methodology is able to reduce development time and to increase output quality of the early system definition phase. The output parameters are used as a first hint for subsequently performed detailed component development. The methodology integrates existing software tools like AVL CRUISE [5] and AVL CAMEO [1].
Technical Paper

Parameterization Process of the Maxwell Model to Describe the Transient Force Behavior of a Tire

2017-03-28
2017-01-1505
The present technical article deals with the modeling of dynamic tire forces, which are relevant during interactions of safety relevant Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Special attention has been paid on simple but effective tire modeling of semi-physical type. In previous investigations, experimental validation showed that the well-known first-order Kelvin-Voigt model, described by a spring and damper element, describes good suitability around fixed operation points, but is limited for a wide working range. When aiming to run vehicle dynamics models within a frequency band of excitation up to 8 Hz, these models deliver remarkable deviations from measured tire characteristics. To overcome this limitation, a nonlinear Maxwell spring-damper element was introduced which is qualified to model the dynamic hardening of the elastomer materials of the tire.
Technical Paper

Integrated Safety and Security Development in the Automotive Domain

2017-03-28
2017-01-1661
The replacement of safety-critical mechanical components with electro-mechanical systems has led to the fact that safety aspects play a central role in development of embedded automotive systems. Recently, consumer demands for connectivity (e.g., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interconnection of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X). Due to this connectivity, it is no longer acceptable to assume that safety-critical systems are immune to security risks.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Automated Fault Diagnosis at Engine Test Beds

2017-01-10
2017-26-0326
Experimental investigations on engine test beds represent a significant cost in engine development. To reduce development time and related costs, it is necessary to check the quality of measurements automatically whenever possible directly on the test bed to allow early detection of faults. A fault diagnosis system should provide information about the presence, cause and magnitude of an inconsistency in measurement. The main challenge in developing such a system is to detect the fault quickly and reliably. However, only faults that have actually occurred should be detected because the user will only adopt a system that provides accurate results. This paper presents a methodology for automated fault diagnosis at engine test beds, starting with an explanation of the general procedure. Next, the methods applied for fault detection are introduced.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations Regarding the Potential of an Electronic Ignition Timing Control for a Lawn Mower Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0083
In order to fulfill future regulations regarding emissions and CO2 reduction, the small engine market inclines to migrate from carburetor systems to cleaner, more efficient electronic ignition controls and electronic fuel injection systems. When implementing such mechatronic systems in small engine applications, one has to consider specific boundary conditions like the lack of relevant sensors, limited possibilities in terms of space and of course the necessity to keep the costs as low as possible. Especially in the non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) segment, the absence of sensors makes it difficult to apply standard electronic control systems, which are based on engine related input signals provided by sensors. One engine related signal, which is even provided by the simplest engine setup, is some form of the crankshaft speed since it is essential for the functionality of the engine.
Journal Article

Evaporation and Cold Start Behavior of Bio-Fuels in Non-Automotive Applications

2016-11-08
2016-32-0034
Worldwide increasing energy consumption, decreasing energy resources and continuous restriction of emission legislation cause a rethinking in the development of internal combustion engines and fuels. Alternative renewable fuels, so called bio-fuels, have the potential to contribute to environmentally friendly propulsion systems. This study concentrates on the usage of alcohol fuels like ethanol, methanol and butanol in non-automotive high power engines, handheld power tools and garden equipment with the focus on mixture formation and cold start capability. Although bio-fuels have been investigated intensely for the use in automotive applications yet, the different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of nonautomotive applications raise the need for specific research. A zero dimensional vaporization model has been set up to calculate the connections between physical properties and mixture formation.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) in Automotive Software Quality Management

2016-04-05
2016-01-0046
A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
Technical Paper

Precise Dummy Head Trajectories in Crash Tests based on Fusion of Optical and Electrical Data: Influence of Sensor Errors and Initial Values

2015-04-14
2015-01-1442
Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with a standard deviation of approximately 5 millimeters, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimeters.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to an Adaptive and Predictive Operation Strategy for PHEVs

2015-04-14
2015-01-1222
These days a new generation of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are penetrating the global vehicle market - the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Compared to conventional HEVs, PHEVs have additional significant potential. They are able to improve fuel efficiency and reduce local emissions due to higher battery capacities, and they can be recharged from external outlets. Energy management has a major impact on the PHEVs performance. In this publication, an innovative operation strategy for PHEVs is presented. This is due to the fact that both increasing fuel efficiency and enhancing the vehicle's longitudinal performance requires a fine balance between the consumption of fossil and electric energy. The new operation strategy combines advanced predictive and adaptive algorithms. In contrast to the charge-sustaining strategy of HEVs, the charge-depleting mode for PHEVs is more appropriate.
Technical Paper

A Versatile Approach for an ISO26262 Compliant Hardware-Software Interface Definition with Model-Based Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0148
Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Configuration Approach for Automotive Real-Time Operating Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0183
Automotive embedded systems have become very complex, are strongly integrated, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. The OSEK/VDX standard provides an open-ended architecture for distributed real-time capable units in vehicles. This is supported by the OSEK Implementation Language (OIL), a language aiming at specifying the configuration of these real-time operating systems. The challenge, however, is to ensure consistency of the concept constraints and configurations along the entire product development. The contribution of this paper is to bridge the existing gap between model-driven systems engineering and software engineering for automotive real-time operating systems (RTOS). For this purpose a bidirectional tool bridge has been established based on OSEK OIL exchange format files.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Emission Reduction on Small Capacity Two-Wheelers with Regard to Future Legislative Limits

2014-11-11
2014-32-0031
Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, a state-of-the-art in development of catalytic converters for two- or three-wheeler applications should be presented. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations.
Technical Paper

Vibration Comfort Control for HEV Based on Machine Learning

2014-06-30
2014-01-2091
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with a power-split system offer a variety of possibilities in reduction of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Power-split systems use a planetary gear sets to create a strong mechanical coupling between the internal combustion engine, the generator and the electric motor. This concept offers rather low oscillations and therefore passive damping components are not needed. Nevertheless, during acceleration or because of external disturbances, oscillations which are mostly influenced by the ICE, can still occur which leads to a drivability and performance downgrade. This paper proposes a design of an active damping control system which uses the electric motor to suppress those oscillations instead of handling them within the ICE control unit. The control algorithm is implemented as part of an existing hybrid controller without any additional hardware introduced.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the System Level Electric Drive using Efficiency Maps Obtained by Simulation Methods

2014-04-01
2014-01-1875
This work presents a physical model that calculates the efficiency maps of the inverter-fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drive. The corresponding electrical machine and its controller are implemented based on the two-phase (d-q) equivalent circuits that take into account the copper loss as well as the iron loss of the PMSM. A control strategy that optimizes the machine efficiency is applied in the controller to maximize the possible output torque. In addition, the model applies an analytical method to predict the losses of the voltage source inverter. Consequently, the efficiency maps within the entire operating region of the PMSM drive can be derived from the simulation results, and they are used to represent electric drives in the system simulation model of electric vehicles (EVs).
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