Testing and Development of New Catalysts for Vapor Phase Ammonia Oxidation
Catalytic oxidation is an effective means of controlling the build up of ammonia and other trace gas contaminants within closed spaces. However, it sometimes leads to the formation of noxious gases that need to be removed in post-treatment systems. In addition, ammonia removal is an issue when regeneration of water from wastewater is considered since ammonia is a byproduct of urea decomposition. For example, the VPCAR (Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction) advanced water processor system includes an oxidation reactor for the destruction of ammonia and of other volatile organics that are not separated out in the evaporator due to their volatility. The oxidation of ammonia may produce nitrogen, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and water vapor. The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) for NO and NO2 are respectively 4.5 and 0.5 ppm whereas the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for N2O is 25 ppm.